H'GTw c/3 €6e Li&rarp of tt>t Ontoersiitp of Bort6 Carolina Collection of jl2ott& Catoiiniana from tfie 3li6tat|? of History OF War Savings Campaign IN North Carolina 1918 HISTORY OF WAR SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 IN NORTH CAROLINA COMPILED FROM ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS IN OFFICE OF F. H. FRIES, STATE DIRECTOR, WINSTON-SALEM, N. C. Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill http://archive.org/details/historyofwarsaviOOfries FOREWORD The great War Savings Campaign of 1918 is passed and it has been a success. The amount of $48,666,380.00, or $20.00 per capita, with the conditions and restrictions imposed, was never a possibility. On the basis of relative wealth or of savings deposits the allotment for North Carolina should have been about $10,000,000. The actual sales were $27,649,397.00, or nearly three times the equitable allot- ment. The State stands first in per capita sales among South At- lantic States and thirty-second in the list of all the States, so far re- ported. We have a right, therefore, to claim that the effort was a success. Not only was it a success in the relative amount of money paid into the United States Treasury, but it brought intimately together in the most perfect organization ever known in the State the finest body of workers from all political parties, of both sexes, and of all denominations, and the State knows itself and the people know and esteem one another as never before. The campaign was a success as manifested by the report of Savings Banks, over and above the amount of War Savings Stamps sold. The Savings Deposits of the State of North Carolina increased 41 per cent between 1914 and 1919, largely due to the campaign of thrift promulgated in 1918. This campaign has borne good fruit, the seeds of which will continue to develop for generations to come. What has been accomplished was only made possible by the loyal and enthusiastic support and efficient efforts of the able force asso- ciated so pleasantly at the headquarters. To these workers, to the members of the executive committee and other committees, to the county chairmen and other county workers, to the Merchants' Association and the manufacturers, and to all workers and friends engaged in this campaign, I wish to extend most sincere acknowledgment and profound thanks. ^£/^ytl2^* f\ State Director. o THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 IN NORTH CAROLINA CHAPTER I Organization Appointment of State Director The War Savings Campaign of 1918 in North Carolina dates from November 9, 1917, which was the day on which Secretary of the Treasury W. G. McAdoo offered the State Directorship of War Savings to Col. F. H. Fries of Winston-Salem, N. C, President of the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, in a telegram in part as follows: "At this critical moment in the history of our country you will have an opportunity to render patriotic service of great value, and I shall greatly appreciate your making whatever sacrifice is necessary to render assistance in this work." On the following day Colonel Fries replied: "Your message . . . finds me willing to serve the government and you in any way that I can within the limitations of my health." A few days later, on the fifteenth and sixteenth of November, Colonel Fries attended in Washington a con- ference of State Directors with Secretary McAdoo and the National War Savings Committee, of which Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip, Presi- dent of the National City Bank of New York, was Chairman. At this conference tentative plans for the conduct of the campaign in the several States was laid before the State Directors for their guidance. First State-Wide Meeting The campaign in North Carolina was actually launched at a State-wide meeting held in Winston-Salem on November 24, 1917, and composed of the following representative men and women : Gov. T. W. Bickett, Raleigh ; Parker Anderson, Washington, D. C. ; J. W. Can- non, Concord; H. G. Chatham, Winston-Salem; W. B. Cooper, Wil- mington; J. Elwood Cox, High Point; A. H. Eller, Col. F. H. Fries, H. E. Fries and J. W. Fries, Winston-Salem; Major W. A. Graham, Commissioner of Agriculture, Raleigh ; James A. Gray, Jr., and Mayor R. W. Gorrell, Winston-Salem; George A. Holderness, Tarboro; W. A. Hunt, Secretary North Carolina Bankers' Association, Hen- derson; Dr. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Mrs. Clarence Johnson, President North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs, Raleigh; R. R. King, Greensboro; Mrs. J. L. Lud- 6 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 low, Clement Manly, Thomas Maslin, and J. Frank Morris, Presi- dent North Carolina Retail Merchants' Association, Winston-Salem; T. S. Morrison, Asheville; Walter Murphy, Salisbury; Col. W. H. Osborne, Greensboro; Senator Lee S. Overman, Washington, D. C. ; Judge Jeter C. Pritchard, Asheville; Mrs. Eugene Reilly, Charlotte; C. A. Reynolds, Mrs. R. J. Reynolds, Chairman of the Women's Liberty Loan Committee, W. N. Reynolds and Mrs. W. N. Rey- nolds, Winston-Salem; R. H. Ricks, Rocky Mount; Wescott Rober- son, High Point; Dr. Howard E. Rondthaler, President of Salem College, Winston-Salem ; Capt. G. T. Roth, Elkin ;_ W. C. Ruffin, Mayodan; R. O. Self, Winston-Salem; M. L. Shipman, Commis- sioner of Labor and Printing, Raleigh; Morgan B. Speer, Charlotte; Gilbert T. Stephenson, Winston-Salem; R. G. Vaughan, Greensboro; and A. D. Watts, Collector of Internal Revenue, Statesville. The keynote of the several addresses was the opportunity that the War Savings Campaign would give to teach thrift and arouse patriotism. Governor Bickett said that, if no other good came out of the cam- paign, the people would be educated to the necessity and righteousness of the war. Meeting- of Editors This meeting of representative citizens was followed the next day, November 25th, by a meeting of the editors of the State, held in Winston-Salem and attended by the following newspaper men : Parker Anderson, Greensboro Daily News; E. G. Atkins, Gastonia Gazette ; R. E. Carmichael, Twin-City Daily Sentinel ; A. W. Cline, N. L. Cranford and M. R. Dunnagan, Winston-Salem Journal; H. R. Dwire, Twin-City Sentinel ; W. C. Hammer, Asheboro Courier ; Wade H. Harris, Charlotte Observer; J. Paul Leonard, North Carolina Trade Magazine ; Santford Martin, President of North Carolina Press Association and Editor of Winston-Salem Journal; Chas. H. Mebane, Catawba News; John A. Park, Raleigh Evening Times; Joe Robertson, Madison Messenger; W. E. Rutledge, Yadkin Ripple; E. L. Starr, Publicity Department of Wachovia Bank and Trust Com- pany, and C. Frank Stroud, Davie Record. The newspaper men present pledged their hearty co-operation in the campaign, Mr. Sant- ford Martin, President of the State Press Association, saying, "Here we are; use us." The purpose of both these meetings was not to announce a definite plan of campaign but, rather, to acquaint the leaders of the State's thought and action with the general features of the task involved in the campaign. State Organization The first step in the campaign was the creation of a State or- ganization and then of one hundred separate county organizations. IN NORTH CAROLINA 7 The State Director at once opened headquarters in the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company building and put in charge Mr. R. O. Self in the capacity of Executive Secretary to the State Director On December 1 the appointment by Secretary McAdoo of Mr. W. B. Drake, Jr., President of the North Carolina Bankers' Association, as Vice-Director, was announced. And on December 9 the appointment of the following State Executive Committee by Secretary McAdoo, upon the recommendation of the State Director, was announced : Gov. T. W. Bickett, Raleigh; J. W. Bailey, Raleigh; D. H. Blair, Winston-Salem; Joseph G. Brown, Chairman Liberty Loan Committee, Raleigh; Judge Stephen' C. Bragaw, Washington, N. C. ; Judge James E. Boyd, Greensboro ; J. W. Cannon, Concord ; H. G. Chatham, Winston-Salem; Judge H. G. Connor, Wilson; D. Y. Cooper, Henderson; J. Elwood Cox, High Point; R. Theodore David- son, Asheville; R. A. Doughton, Sparta; W. B. Drake, Jr., Raleigh; Carl Duncan, Raleigh; A. H. Eller, Winston-Salem; W. A. Erwin, Durham ; H. E. Fries, Winston-Salem ; Lieutenant-Governor O. Max Gardner, Shelby; Dr. E. K. Graham, President of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Major W. A. Graham, Commissioner of Agriculture, Raleigh ; James A. Gray, Winston-Salem ; J. Bryan Grimes, Secretary of State, Raleigh ; C. J. Harris, Sylva ; Dr. D. H. Hill, Chairman of Council of Defense, Raleigh ; George A. Holderness, Tarboro ; Eugene Holt, Burlington ; Dr. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh ; R. R. King, Greens- boro ; B. R. Lacy, State Treasurer, Raleigh ; Clement Manly, Winston- Salem; Judge J. S. Manning, Attorney General, Raleigh; Santford Martin, Raleigh; Cameron Morrison, Charlotte; T. S. Morrison, Asheville ; A. W. McLean, Lumberton ; Hugh McRae, Wilmington ; Walter Murphy, Salisbury; W. C. Newland, Lenoir; Nathan O'Berry, Goldsboro; Col. W. H. Osborne, Greensboro; Robert N. Page, Biscoe; Dr. J. M. Parrot, Kinston ; Dr. Clarence Poe, Raleigh ; James H. Pou, Raleigh; Judge J. C. Pritchard, Asheville; Mrs*. J. Eugene Reilly, Charlotte; R. H. Ricks, Rocky Mount; C. A. Reynolds, Mrs. R. J. Reynolds, and W. N. Reynolds, Winston-Salem; Wescott Roberson, High Point; Dr. Howard Rondthaler, Winston-Salem; W. C. Ruffin, Mayodan ; R. O. Self, Winston-Salem ; M. L. Shipman, Commissioner of Labor and Printing, Raleigh; Morgan B. Speer, Charlotte; Dr. James Sprunt, Wilmington; Gilbert T. Stephenson, Winston-Salem; A. D. Watts, Statesville; Col. W. P. Wood, State Auditor, Raleigh; and J. R. Young, Commissioner of Insurance, Raleigh. On February 22, 1918, the appointment of Hon. Robert N. Page, Biscoe, as a Vice-Director was announced. In addition to the two Vice-Directors and the Executive Com- mittee there was a Central Committee of local men, named by the State Director himself, upon whom he might call at a moment's 8 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 notice. They were Messrs. J. K. Norfleet, Chairman, H. G. Chatham, H. E. Fries, W. N. Reynolds, and H. F. Shafrner. In May the State Director divided the State into several districts and named a chairman of each district, whose duty it was to visit and help the County Chairmen of his district get ready for the June drive. The District Chairmen were William Burckel, Asheville; Dr. Chas. E. Reynal, Statesville ; J. K. Norfleet and O. B. Eaton, Winston- Salem; and D. C. Barnes, Murfreesboro. State Headquarters Early in January, 1918, the State Headquarters were moved from the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company building to more commodious quarters and thereafter occupied the entire first floor of one of the Jacobs buildings on Main street, Winston-Salem. Mr. Gilbert T. Stephenson, of the law firm of Hastings, Stephenson and Whicker, Winston-Salem, became a member of the Headquarters staff on November 24, 1917, as field representative of the War Savings Committee. Mr. E. L. Starr became Publicity Manager, dividing his time between the War Savings Committee and the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company's Publicity Department. By the middle of Jan- uary it was found that the publicity work would require at least one man's entire time. Mr. Starr resigned in order to give his entire time to the Bank, and Mr. J. O. Cobb, of Leak-Cobb Company, Winston-Salem, became Publicity Manager. On the fourth of February the State Board of Health granted a leave of absence to Miss Kate M. Herring of Raleigh, who came to the State Head- quarters to take charge of the newspaper publicity, Mr. Cobb re- maining in charge of the other branches of publicity. Mr. Cobb entered the aviation branch of the army the latter part of May and was succeeded as Advertising Manager by Mr. B. K. Milloway, head of the Publicity Department of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, which company gave the War Savings Committee the services of Mr. Milloway during the remaining six months of the campaign. The State Director in January secured Mr. R. G. Stockton of Winston-Salem as Director of Organization to have charge not only of the organization but also of the speakers' bureau and the sales agencies. Mr. Stockton entered the Judge Advocate's Department of the Army in June and his work was thereafter divided among the other members of the Headquarters staff. County Organization Even while the State organization was being perfected the county organizations had to go on apace. First, one hundred County Chair- men had to be named and each County Chairman had to have an IN NORTH CAROLINA 9 organization. The State Director made diligent inquiry into the availability of men in each County for Chairman and, having determined the one most available, wired him a request to accept the chairman- ship. By December 7, he was able to announce chairmen for seventy- eight counties and on December 11 he announced chairmen for twelve more. Soon thereafter he was able to complete the list of one hun- dred chairmen. But scarcely a week after the list was completed did it remain unchanged. Some chairmen entered the military service, others left the county, and one, Mr. C. P. Matheson, of Alexan- der County, died. Only forty counties finished the campaign with the same chairmen with which they started. One ; 'of the coun- ties had as many as five chairmen, four as many as four, and thir- teen as many as three. In all one hundred and eighty-eight people acted as County Chairmen during the year. The following is a list of those who have served as County War Savings Chairmen during the campaign of 1918: County Chairman Address Alamance _.E. S. Parker, Jr Graham Lawrence S. Holt, Jr Burlington Alexander _ C. P. Matheson, deceased Taylorsville F. A. Sharpe _ Stoney Point Alleghany C. W. Higgins _ Sparta Eugene Transou ..._ Sparta Anson _...T. L. Caudle _ Wadesboro T. C. Cox Wadesboro Ashe C. M. Dickson Silas Creek W. R. Baugess Jefferson Avery _ _ R. W. Wall _ Newland Beaufort E. R. Mixon _ Washington Bertie ..._ _ C. W. Mitchell _ Aulander J. H. Matthews Windsor Bladen ..._ Byron Clark _ Elizabethtown Hector H. Clark Clarkton Brunswick Dr. E. G. Goodman Lanvale E. H. Cranmer _ Southport Burke _ _ J. F. McGimsey Morganton Charles Lane _ Morganton Buncombe Hiden Ramsey _ Asheville T. W. Raoul, Acting Asheville Cabarrus H. I. Woodhouse Concord Camden _R. C. Dozier South Mills Caldwell Jacob Seagle Lenoir 10 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 County Chairman Address Carteret R. T. Wade Morehead City Claude Wheatley Beaufort W. A. Mace Beaufort Caswell _ _.R. T. Wilson Yanceyville Catawba J. D. Elliott _ Hickory A. K. Joy, Acting Hickory Chatham Leon T. Lane Pittsboro Cherokee J. B. Walker Murphy L. E. Bayless _ Murphy M. E. Cozad Andrews M. W. Bell Murphy Chowan _ Frank Wood Edenton M. L. Wright _... Edenton Clay L. M. Scroggs Brasstown Cleveland O. M. Mull Shelby O. Max Gardner Shelby Geo. A. Hoyle - Shelby Columbus J. A. Brown _ Chadbourn Craven T. A. Uzzell New Bern W. W. Griffin New Bern Cumberland John A. Oates Fayetteville W. M. Walker Fayetteville G. C. Trice Fayetteville Currituck Dr. W. H. Cowell Shawboro Davidson _ Col. G. F. Hankins Lexington W. L. Crawford Lexington Dare _ R. Bruce Etheridge Manteo Davie E. L. Gaither Mocksville Duplin H. McD. Williams Faison H. L. Stevens Warsaw Durham ..._ John Sprunt Hill Durham Edgecombe _ C. A. Johnson _ Tarboro Forsyth P. A. Gorrell Winston-Salem Franklin W. H. Yarborough, Jr Louisburg Gaston _John W. Carpenter Gastonia Geo. W. Wilson _ Gastonia Gates B. L. Banks, Jr Gatesville R. R. Taylor, Acting Gatesville Graham Earl Tathem Robbinsville Robah Gray _ Robbinsville IN NORTH CAROLINA 11 County Chairman Address Granville Ben K. Lassiter _ Oxford John Webb Oxford J. R, Hall Oxford Greene _ J. T. Sugg Snow Hill F. W. Dixon Snow Hill Guilford T. R. Faust ...Greensboro Halifax Walter Daniel Weldon A. E. Akers Roanoke Rapids Harnett R. L. Godwin Dunn B. P. Gentry _ Lillington Haywood J. R. Boyd _ Waynesville Dr. G. D. Greene Waynesville S. H. Bushnell Waynesville Henderson Brownlow Jackson Hendersonville C. F. Bland Hendersonville Hertford John E. Vann Winton Hoke Julian W. McLaughlin Raeford J. T. Jerome, Acting Raeford Hyde : _ D. H. Carter Fairfield Charles Brim Swan Quarter A. B. Litchfield Swan Quarter G. M. Guthrie Swan Quarter Iredell L. B. Bristol Statesville Jackson _.C. C. Buchanan Sylva J. N. Wilson Cullowhee F. I. Watson Dillsboro Johnston _...T. S. Ragsdale Smithfield Jon,es _ C. T. Rogers Trenton Lee _ S. R. Hoyle Sanford J. E. Brinn Sanford Lenoir Dr. J. M. Parrott Kinston Lincoln J. B. Johnston Lincolnton D. C. Williams Lincolnton McDowell R. F. Burton Marion W. M. McNairy Marion D. T. Harris Marion C. W. McCall _ Marion Macon „ W. W. Jones Franklin M. D. Billings Franklin John H. Crosby _ Franklin C. C. Currier Franklin Madison John A. Hendricks Marshall 12 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 County Chairman Address Martin „ Clayton Moore Williamston Mecklenburg Paul C. Whitlock Charlotte Edgar W. Pharr _ Charlotte C. G. Gover Charlotte Mitchell ..._ Chas. E. Green Bakersville J. B. Craigmiles Bakersville Montgomery W. B. Cochrane Mt. Gilead Moore ..._ Junius R. Page Aberdeen Nash _ Leon T. Vaughan _ Nashville New Hanover . ...Joseph W. Little Wilmington George Honnet Wilmington Northampton „ Garland E. Midyette _ _ Jackson Onsjow John W. Burton _. Jacksonville George Hurst Jacksonville F. W. K. Kellum Jacksonville Orange _ ~...S. Strudwick Hillsboro Pamlico W. J. Swann Stonewall Pasquotank ..._ W. G. Gaither, Jr Elizabeth City W. O. Saunders _ Elizabeth City J. B. Leigh Elizabeth City Pender _ J. T. Bland, Jr _ JBurgaw Dr. Ira W. Brown Burgaw Perquimans J. S. McNider Hertford Person E. G. Long Roxboro N. Lunsford „ Roxboro F. O. Carver Roxboro Pitt _.D. M. Clark Greenville R. H. Wright _ Greenville Polk _ „ W. T. Lindsay Tryon B. L. Ballinger Tryon Randolph T. Fletcher Bulla Asheboro E. L. Moffitt Asheboro Richmond ..._ Fred Bynum Rockingham Claude Gore Rockingham Robeson L. R. Varser JLumberton Rockingham Geo. W. Fraker Spray J. M. Sharpe Reidsville Rowan W. B. Strachan Salisbury Beverly Lake, Acting _ Salisbury IN NORTH CAROLINA 13 County Chairman Address Rutherford _.W. M. Sherrod Caroleen R. E. Price Rutherfordton C. D. Geer Rutherfordton Sampson L. A. Bethune Clinton H. L. Boyd Clinton Scotland W. H. Weatherspoon Laurinburg Stanly E. L. Ford _ _ Albemarle W. L. Mann Albemarle Stokes .". _ Dr. W. C. Slate Walnut Cove O. N. Petree Walnut Cove Surry A. V. West _ Mt. Airy Swain T. D. Bryson Bryson City J. H. Harwood Bryson City S. W. Black Bryson City Transylvania R. H. Zachary Brevard H. N. Carrier Brevard J. S. Silversteen Brevard Tyrrell _ Dr. J. L. Spruill Columbia W. S. Carawan Columbia J. C. Griffin _ Columbia B. B. Jones Columbia W. M. Laughinghouse Columbia Union R. A. Morrow Monroe Vance W. A. Hunt Henderson Wake Dr. M. C. Horton Raleigh John A. Park Raleigh Warren Marmaduke Hawkins Ridgeway John Graham Warrenton Washington A. W. Swain Plymouth Van B. Martin, Acting Plymouth Z. V. Norman Plymouth Watauga B. B. Dougherty .Boone Wayne Thomas Norwood _ Goldsboro C. E. Wilkins Goldsboro Wilkes C. H. Cowles Wilkesboro Jos. M. Prevette Wilkesboro Wilson T. F. Pettus Wilson Yadkin J. T. Reece Yadkinville Yancey John A. Watson Burnsville J. M. Lyon Burnsville R. W. Wilson Burnsville 14 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Three types of County organization were adopted, one after the other. In the beginning of the campaign the County Chairman was asked to surround himself with an executive committee of ten leading citizens of the County, representing the several professions and busi- nesses. Gradually this type grew into the second which called for a sub-committee for each of the leading community interests. The county organization as finally completed and announced provided for a chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, publicity manager, executive agents who were, ex officio, the county superintendent of schools, city superintendent of schools (if there was a city or large town in the county), county farm demonstrator, county home demonstrator, and county health officer, an executive committee composed of the officers and chairmen of the several sub-committees, a committee on War Sav- ings Societies composed, as a rule, of a representative of each of the other sub-committees, finance committee, school committee, com- mittee on speakers, committee on churches, committee on fraternal orders and other organizations, women's committee, committee on banks, stores, and railroads, publicity committee, manufacturers' com- mittee, committee on colored people, and, in agricultural counties, a committee of farmers. A complete organization under this plan would take from seventy-five to a hundred and twenty-five of the leading men and women of the county. This form of organization was especially adapted to a campaign of education, inasmuch as there was a special committee to present thrift propaganda to each group of citizens. But the plan was not at all adapted to soliciting pledges. And when Mr. Vanderlip announced the June drive, it became neces- sary to effect a new organization in each County in the State. This, the third plan of organization, called for a County Chairman, a chair- man for each township in rural districts and for each ward in cities and towns, and canvassers for each neighborhood. This compact, geographical organization was adapted to canvassing and soliciting and reporting pledges. The second type of organization, which was but an outgrowth of the first, was the one under which the counties operated from the time of their organization in the early months of 1918 until the first of June. The third type was the one under which they operated the balance of the year. Organization of Colored People Although a committee on colored people, to be composed of the most representative colored men and women of the county, was pro- vided for in the plan of organization, the State Director felt that, if satisfactory results were to be obtained from them, it was necessary to give even more attention to this people, who constituted one-third of the population of the State. Consequently, on the 10th of January he called a conference of the colored leaders of the state. He had IN NORTH CAROLINA 15 previously asked the chairman of each county that had a large colored population to provide for the expenses of at least one representative to the conference. This conference, held at the Slater Normal School, Winston-Salem, was attended by the following colored leaders of the State: Rev. H. L. Ashe and Dr. S. G. Atkins, Winston-Salem; R. J. Beverly, Wadesboro; N. T. Bond, Winston-Salem; R. W. Brown, Winston-Salem; Dr. S. C. Brown, Winton; T. J. Brown and Rev. G. O. Bullock, Winston-Salem; C. H. Bynum, Kinston; J. B. Christian and Rev. J. R. T. Christian, Winston-Salem; Bishop George W. Clinton, Charlotte; Rev. J. H. Curry, Winston-Salem; E. N. Dent, Louisburg; Rev. J. D. Diggs, Winston-Salem; H. M. Ellis, Lexington; Charles M. Epps, Greenville; Charles W. Foushee, Statesville; Dr. W. H. Goler, Salisbury; A. J. Griffin, High Point; L. E. Hall, Chadbourn; J. S. Hill, Winston-Salem; T. B. Hollaway, Kinston; Rev. S. J. Howie, Winston-Salem; T. S. Inborden, Bricks; Thomas Iverson, Dawson, Ga. ; Charles J. Jenkins, Hertford ; C. H. Johnson, Raeford; C. H. Jones and Dr. J. W. Jones, Winston-Salem; Dr. S. B. Jones, Greensboro; Rev. P. J. Joyce, Waughtown; W. H. Knuckles, Lumberton; Rev. R. O. Langford and H. Liston, Winston- Salem; Rev. F. T. Logan, Concord; Rev. J. T. Martin and Rev. P. A. McCorkle, Winston-Salem; Dr. H. L. McCrory, Charlotte; Dr. R. B. McRary, Lexington; John Merrick, Durham; H. R. Miller, Edenton; C. H. Moore, Greensboro; J. E. Morris, Maysville; W. H. Murphy and W. H. Neal, Winston-Salem; W. A. Patillo, Tarboro; Rev. N. D. Pearson and Rev. R. L. Peters, Winston-Salem; G. H. Pettie, Rural Hall; J. M. Poindexter, Rural Hall; Rev. W. W. Pope, Rev. H. S. Roberts, J. Jackson Sadler, W. S. Scales and S. A. Smith, Winston-Salem ; C. C. Spauldin, Durham ; E. G. Story. Wil- mington; Rev. R. S. Stout, Winston-Salem; Gretchen M. Teneych, Wadesboro; James Timlic, Winston-Salem; J. H. Turner, Winston- Salem; S. H. Vick, Wilson; Rev. J. W. Walker, Asheville; Rev. S. F. Wentz, Winston-Salem ; Sandy Williams, Winston-Salem ; and Col. James H. Young, Raleigh. At this conference Dr. R. B. McRary of Lexington was named Chairman and Dr. S. G. Atkins of Winston- Salem, Executive Secretary of the Colored War Savings Executive Committee of North Carolina. The committee named at that meet- ing was composed of Dr. S. G. Atkins, Winston-Salem; Dr. C. S. Brown, Winton; Bishop George W. Clinton, Charlotte; Dr. W. H. Goler, Salisbury; John Merrick, Durham; Dr. R. B. McRary, Lex- ington; E. G. Story, Wilmington; A. H. Vick, Wilson; and Col. J. H. Young, Raleigh. Provision was made also for opening a State Headquarters for the Colored Executive Committee at Winston-Salem to be under the charge of Dr. S. G. Atkins. The State or, rather, that portion of the State that had the bulk of the colored people was divided among the members of the Executive Committee, and each member assumed responsibility to get the War Savings work started 16 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 and to keep it going among the colored people of a definite territory. In the County a separate colored chairman and committee were not named but, instead, the work was under the supervision of the white chairman and was promoted through his colored sub-committee. The Lumbermen The lumbermen of the State were organized from the National Headquarters with Mr. Nathan O'Berry of Goldsboro as Chairman. The lumbermen's organization was, therefore, a branch of the national rather than of the state organization and reports of its activities were made to the National Headquarters rather than to the State Director. The Retail Merchants In May, 1918, the Retail Merchants' Division of the War Sav- ings Committee was organized in North Carolina with Mr. John L. Gilmer of Winston-Salem as State Chairman and Mr. Frank E. Griffith of Winston-Salem, as Secretary. The Retail Merchants' Association of Winston-Salem furnished the offices and the services of the Secretary for the State Headquarters of the Retail Merchants' Division. . Mr. Gilmer divided the State into nine districts and named a chairman for each district. These district chairmen, together with such assistance as the State Headquarters could give them, visited the leading towns of the State and named a leading retail merchant as local chairman in each town. Two hundred and fifty-one cities and towns of the State were organized and five thousand two hundred and eighteen retail merchants of the State were authorized as agents to sell War Savings Stamps. The plan, in general, was to allot a definite amount in stamps to be sold by each merchant and to have each merchant, in turn, assign a definite allotment to each clerk. IN NORTH CAROLINA 17 CHAPTER II Early Activities of the Campaign The Teachers' Assembly of 1917 The first effort to popularize War Savings was made at the Teachers' Assembly in session at Charlotte, November 28-30, 1917. Colonel Fries and Mr. Stephenson attended the several sessions of the assembly and presented War Savings to various groups and grades of teachers in short addresses, and on the last night of the assembly Colonel Fries presented War Savings to a mass meeting of teachers and citizens that filled the First Baptist Church of Charlotte. The teachers must have accepted the appeal as a patriotic privilege as well as a special obligation from the work they immediately started with their children. Dr. Joyner urged the teachers to observe North Carolina Day on December 14 as War Savings Day, but this, their first effort, was largely a failure because the weather all over North Carolina that day was so inclement that the observance of North Carolina Day could not be general or satisfactory. Announcement was made that the observance might be postponed till the next Friday, but on the 21st the weather was again quite as inclement. The Asheville Meeting At a mass meeting in Asheville on the evening of December 14, Hon. William Jennings Bryan gave considerable impetus to the campaign in the Western part of the State by an address in which he stressed particularly the advantage that the War Savings Campaign would be in teaching thrift, economy, and saving to the boys and girls of the State. This meeting was attended by representatives of several Western Counties and through these representatives and the press of Asheville War Savings was first brought to the attention of this section of the State. Christmas of 1917 Effort was made to capitalize the Christmas of 1917 for War Savings. . The State Headquarters sent letters to about one thousand five hundred of the largest employers of labor of the State, asking them to use War Savings and Thrift Stamps for their Christmas gifts and in payment of their bonuses. Santa Claus was importuned through the press to put Stamps into the children's stockings. But only a few of the employers were, themselves, familiar enough with War Savings at this time to explain it to their employees and make them under- 18 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 stand the value of War Savings Stamps. In the few instances in which Stamps were used as Christmas gifts or in the payment of bonuses, the results were disappointing. Some of the employees refused to receive the Stamps, others received them and threw them away in disdain, and still others received them and immediately sold them for a trifle. Many of these same employees were later made to see the value of the Stamps and became large investors in them. At the end of 1917 it could not be said that there was either popular knowledge of or enthusiasm for War Savings Stamps. Mr. Milton Harrison's Tour of the State The first telling stroke of the new year was the tour of the State by Mr. Milton W. Harrison, Secretary of the Savings Bank Section of the American Bankers' Association. Arriving in Winston- Salem on Sunday, January 6, he addressed a selected group of citizens in the Directors' Room of the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company on the seriousness of the War and the economic as well as patriotic value of the War Savings Stamp. Mr. Harrison and Mr. Gilbert T. Stephenson spent the following week in the Eastern part of the State, addressing mass meetings, conducting conferences with the com- mittees, and securing pledges to purchase War Savings Stamps. They visited Wilson, Wilmington, New Bern, Washington and Elizabeth City. Everywhere they drove home to the hearts of the people, as it had not been done before, that the War was a very serious thing, that it must and would come close home to the people of the State, and that the War Savings Stamp was the citizen's supreme oppor- tunity to do his part toward winning the war. Mr. Harrison in- augurated the custom of taking pledges to buy War Savings Stamps. At Wilson they had pledge-cards printed, and they solicited the busi- ness and professional men for large pledges. In one day's time they secured sixteen thousand dollars in pledges. They did the same at every place they visited, and the week's work netted the War Savings Committee about one hundred thousand dollars in pledges. More than that, it showed the people that the War Savings Campaign was not teaching the theory of thrift merely but was committing the people definitely to the policy of saving by having them pledge an amount that would necessitate the practice of economy. Mr. Har- rison, at the end of the week in the East, addressed a mass meeting in Raleigh and conducted several conferences which resulted in bringing War Savings to the attention of the people of the State even more forcibly than it had been before. Mr. Lasker's Visit While it is not following the orderly course of development of the War Savings Campaign, it is well here to mention the service IN NORTH CAROLINA 19 that was rendered by other men who came into the State to help in the War Savings Campaign. The latter part of November, 1917, Mr. Harry W. Lasker of the Publicity Department of the National Headquarters spent a day at the State Headquarters in conference, and, as a guest of the local Rotary Club at a luncheon, made an address in which he impressed upon his audience and, through the publication of his address, upon the people of the State, the fact that the prime purpose of the Government in the War Savings Campaign was not to raise money but to save goods and labor and to teach thrift, point- ing out that, if the Government had wanted money chiefly, it would not have put the one thousand dollar limit upon the purchase of War Savings Stamps. Captain Fallon's Visit Beginning about the middle of February, Capt. David Fallon of the Australian Army spent three weeks touring the principal towns of the State. He went as far east as Washington and Tarboro and as far west as Asheville. Capt. Fallon was the first real War hero that had come to North Carolina. Before the War he had been a trained military man, having studied military tactics not only at home but abroad as well, including Germany, and at the outbreak of the War was a teacher in the Military Academy of New South Wales. Called into the War early, he had had a distinguished part in the first battles in France, had gone through the Campaign of Gallipoli, where he received his first wound, had seen service in a tank, in an aeroplane, and in the trenches, had been wounded fourteen times, and, after being awarded the Military Cross by King George, was at last hon- erably discharged from the army as being unfit for further service on account of having his right hand blown to pieces. Captain Fallon had a pleasing personality and was a thrilling speaker. His tour of the State was really a continuous ovation. He spoke two, three, and sometimes as many as five times a day at mass meetings, to groups of school children, colored people, and to factory employees. At these meetings he was accompanied by a representative of the State Head- quarters — first by Mr. Eaton and later by Mr. Stephenson — who un- dertook for War Savings to capitalize the enthusiasm he evoked. Pledges were taken after his address to mass meetings. At a meeting in Tar- boro Captain Fallon, this time unaccompanied by anybody from the State Headquarters, took fifty-one thousand dollars in pledges ; at two meetings in Catawba County — one at Newton and the other, im- mediately afterwards, at Hickory — he took fifty thousand dollars in pledges. While Captain Fallon did not undertake to discuss the mean- ing or importance of the War Savings Campaign in detail, he did bring the War home to the people. By his thrilling story and by showing them the marks of War upon his own body he made the 20 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 people ready to hear and even eager to respond to the War Savings appeal. Lieutenant Choyce's Visit Another English soldier who toured North Carolina under the auspices of the State Headquarters and in the interest of War Savings was Lieutenant A. Newberry Choyce of the Lancaster Regiment, England. Lieutenant Choyce spent the last week of July in the State, touching the places that had not been touched by other out- side speakers. He was accompanied by Mr. J. H. Whicker from the State Headquarters and spent most of the week in the Eastern section, going as far east as Beaufort. Lieutenant Choyce, being, like Captain Fallon, a young man, well educated and of distinct literary tastes and ability and having survived horrible experiences of the War, stirred his audiences deeply and disposed them to respond to the War Savings appeal. Other Visitors In another connection mention will be made of the work of Mr. Charles W. Whitehair and of the several returned soldiers whom the War Savings Committee used later in the year. The State Head- quarters was favored during the year with visits from several repre- sentatives of the National Headquarters — notably Mr. C. J. Thorson of Colorado, Mr. Harry Palmer and Mr. Frank C. Builta of Ne- braska, who came with a wealth of practical suggestions drawn from the experiences of other States. The Meeting of Colored Workers One of the most significant State-wide meetings that was held the entire year was the meeting of colored people at Slater School on January 10th. The names of the colored people who attended have already been given. In the beginning of the campaign how to handle the colored people had been a problem; it was solved by this meeting. Representative colored men were assembled from every section of the State. The State Director laid upon them the responsibility of seeing that their people played citizen's parts in the War Savings Campaign. They appreciated the interest and confidence that the State Director had in them, and they left the conference with a vision of War Sav- ings both as a means of helping to win the War and as a means of uplifting the race. This was the message they carried back to their people. It is only fair to single out and mention particularly the excellent work of Dr. R. B. McRary of Lexington; Dr. S. G. At- kins, Executive Secretary; Dr. S. C. Brown of Winton; Prof. T. IN NORTH CAROLINA 21 S. Inborden, of Bricks; Rev. H. F. Woodhouse, of Elizabeth City — men who threw themselves heart and soul into the campaign. War Saving's Institute The War Savings Institute at Raleigh on February 12-13, 1918, was, in many respects, the most significant meeting of any kind that was ever held in the State. The suggestion of such an institute was made by Dr. J. Y. Joyner at a meeting of the Executive Committee at Winston-Salem on January 21. The idea was to have a two days' school of War Savings to instruct the leaders. On January 31 Gov- ernor Bickett issued a proclamation inviting all who were interested in the work to attend, but appointing as a special delegate every county superintendent of public instruction, every superintendent of a town or city school, every farm demonstration agent, every home demon- stration agent, one physician from each county in the State, to be named by the State Board of Health, and the chairman of the county executive committee of each political party in the State. He urged the county commissioners of the several counties to pay the expenses of the farm and home demonstration agents and of the physician, and the boards of education to pay the expenses of their representatives. Governor Bickett closed his proclamation with this warning, "Let it be borne in mind that this meeting is not to be a celebration, but, as its name implies, it is to be a school, and all who attend will be thoroughly taught just what they are expected to do and just how to do it." When the delegates — the War Savings pupils — assembled in the Auditorium in Raleigh on the afternoon of Tuesday, February 12, every one of the one hundred counties of the State was represented. There were present six hundred and seventy-three delegates. It was to a supreme degree an all-State meeting. There were present white people and colored people, men and women, Democrats, Republicans, Prohibitionists and Socialists, communicants of every religious faith, people from Cherokee to Currituck and from all the counties between. It took a special car to bring the Rockingham County delegation. The meeting on Tuesday afternoon was really a session of school. After the opening prayer and the address of welcome by Governor Bickett, Colonel Fries outlined the United States War Savings plan; Mr. Gil- bert T. Stephenson explained War Savings Stamps and War Sav- ings Societies ; Dr. J. Y. Joyner explained the relation of the schools to the campaign; and Col. Thomas B. McAdams, State Director of Virginia, explained the relation of the public to the campaign. The second session of the school was Wednesday morning. First, there were the group meetings — the school teachers, the club women, the home demonstration agents, the farm demonstration agents — in which the special work of each of these groups was outlined. Then there was the round-table discussion, led by Mr. Otto Marx, Federal 22 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Director of the War Savings Committee for this district. Mr. J. E. Kavanaugh, Director of Organization of the National Committee, dis- cussed the necessity and plan of organization in general, and Colonel Fries outlined the uniform plan of county organization that had been adopted and which has been discussed above. In closing messages Colonel Fries spoke of the aims; Dr. Joyner, of the duties; and Gov- ernor Bickett of the responsibilities of the War Savings Campaign. The high-water mark of the Institute was reached at the meeting in the Auditorium Tuesday night, without which meeting the after-effects of the Institute would not have been nearly as great as they were. Nearly three thousand five hundred people were assembled in the auditorium. After the preliminary exercises, Mr. James H. Pou in- troduced Mr. Charles W. Whitehair of New Jersey, a returned Y. M. C. A* worker, who had worked not only in France but in Egypt, and had crossed the danger zone thirteen times. Mr. Whitehair, having the gift of word-painting to an unusual degree, made his audience see and feel the actualities of the War as they had not done before. He held his audience spellbound for over an hour. At the end of his address the audience rose spontaneously and gave the speaker a re- markable ovation. Mr. Whitehair was followed by Judge J. H. Moyle, Third Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, who drove home with great force the absolute necessity of answering Mr. Whitehair's appeal in a practical way and showed how the Treasury of the United States must have the money called for in the War Savings plan. The two sessions of school had instructed the people in the War Savings plan and the addresses of Mr. Whitehair and Judge Moyle Tuesday night had aroused in them a determination to put the plan into practice. From this Institute dates the War Savings campaign as a popular, State-wide movement. These six hundred and seventy-three delegates went back into the hundred counties of the State as evangelists of patriotism and of War Savings. The Publicity Department On of the features of the War Savings Campaign was the work of the publicity department at the State Headquarters. The publicity work, in common with the work of every other department, was an evolution. In the beginning it was not considered necessary to have a director of publicity to give his entire time to the work and Mr. R. O. Self, in addition to his duties as* Executive Secretary to the State Director, issued the advertising matter and furnished special articles to the press of the State. Within a month after the beginning of the campaign, that is, by the 20th of December, the publicity work had grown so that additional help was required, and the State Director secured Mr. E. L. Starr, Publicity Manager of the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, to become Publicity Manager of the War Sav- IN NORTH CAROLINA 23 ings Committee and to divide his time between the Bank and War Savings. Within another month the demands of the work had in- creased to the point at which one's entire time was required. As Mr. Starr was unable to give his entire time to War Savings, he resigned and Mr. J. O. Cobb of Leak-Cobb Company, Winston-Salem, on January 25, 1918, became whole-time Publicity Manager. Shortly after this it was found that the publicity work naturally divided itself into two branches — one newspaper publicity and the other advertising. On the 4th of February Miss Kate M. Herring was secured from the State Board of Health, Raleigh, on leave, to become Director of Publicity, having charge of the newspaper articles on War Savings, and Mr. J. O. Cobb became Advertising Manager, having charge of all advertising matter created at or distributed by the State Head- quarters. One of Mr. Cobb's first tasks was to secure a Publicity Manager in each county to work with and be a part of the County War Savings Committee. Mr. Cobb remained with the State Head- quarters until he entered the aviation branch of the Army in April. He was succeeded as Advertising Manager by Mr. B. K. Milloway, who had been head of the Publicity Department of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, and who was granted a leave of absence on salary by that Company to serve the War Savings cause. Mr. Milloway gave his entire time to War Savings until October, when he was called back to the Reynolds Tobacco Company for part of his time, but he continued to the end of the campaign to serve the War Savings Committee whenever called. Miss Herring's work took two turns. One was the preparation of a special article on War Savings each day for the daily newspapers of the State and one each week for the weekly papers. The other was editing the War Savings News, a weekly news sheet, after the fashion of the University News Letter, sent to the War Savings committeemen, the newspapers, and to others who were interested and active in the cause. During the special drives in June and December she prepared plate matter on War Savings for the weekly newspapers of the State. Miss Herring brought the War Savings work of North Carolina among the colored people into national prominence by two articles on the subject — one published in The Outlook of New York on November 20, and the other in The South Atlantic Quarterly of January, 1919. In addition to her duties as Director of Publicity, she performed those of Director of War Savings Societies, which feature of the work will be discussed later. Field Work The field work of the War Savings Committee, to which Mr. Stephenson paid special attention, began at the very beginning of the campaign and lasted to the very end of it. The first task was to get a working organization in each county. It was found that these or- 24 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OP 1918 ganfzations could not be effected in every case by correspondence. As has already been stated, most of the County Chairmen were secured by wire and letter. But it was necessary to have a representative of the State Headquarters go to the several counties to complete the organization and acquaint the chairmen with their work. Besides Mr. Stephenson, Mr. O. B. Eaton and Mr. M. P. Traynor were engaged in this work during the early months of the year. One of them would go to a county, call a conference of the County Chairmen and a number of the leading men and women of his community, and have the con- feres select the various sub-committees. While in a community the representative would take occasion to address school children and or- ganize War Savings Societies and address such other groups of citizens as were available and, wherever practicable, to solicit pledges for War Savings. Mills and factories were glad to stop work for a few minutes and give the field representative an opportunity to talk War Savings and even take pledges and organize Societies. Flying Squadrons One phase of the field work was that of the Flying Squadrons. It was found that many of the County Committees needed actual demonstration in soliciting pledges, as they were not trained solicitors and did not know how to secure pledges for large amounts. The plan was to have three Flying Squadrons of six experienced workers each and to have a Flying Squadron spend one full day in a county. The County Committee would meet the squadron immediately after its arrival in the county and make up six teams of two each — a member of the squadron and a local man. The teams would select their territory and go out for a day's work of soliciting pledges. At an appointed hour late in the afternoon or evening all the teams would meet for reports on the day's work. And the teams, as well as the three squadrons, rivalled one another in the amount of pledges secured. Most of the members of the squadrons were effective public speakers, and these placed themselves at the disposal of the County Chairman for addresses in the evening they were in a county. It would have taken these squadrons three weeks to cover or give a day" each to the leading counties of the State. The first week of their work was very successful; not only were thousands of dollars in pledges secured but the local workers were given a demonstration of the ease with which pledges, even for the limit, might be secured. But at the end of the first week the squadrons had to be called out of the field out of deference to the workers in the Third Liberty Loan, which began April 6 and lasted until May 4, and by the time the squadrons were ready to go back into the field, the June drive, calling for an entirely different plan, had been announced. Among those who were members of the Flying Squadrons were Messrs. O. B. Eaton, M. P. Traynor, Chas. E. Reynal, IN NORTH CAROLINA 25 D. F. Giles, John A. Oates, W. C. Bivens, Beverly Lake, E. E. Stanley, E. E. Emerson and W. H. Weatherspoon. The several drives required considerable field work from State Headquarters, but it is probably better to discuss this type of field work in connection with the drives themselves. Victory Acres and Thrift Gardens An idea that gave great promise but one that was abandoned before it could be promoted to the finish was that of Victory Acres and Thrift Gardens. The idea was to get farmers to plant an acre each in some crop — like cotton, peanuts, or tobacco — that would yield large profits, dedicate it to War Savings, distinguish it in some way as by having a flag wave over it, and invest all the proceeds in War Savings Stamps, and to have the children in both town and country to plant Thrift Gardens for the same purpose. Mr. Cobb, through his advertising department, and Miss Herring, through her newspaper articles, and the field men through their addresses and conferences made much of the Victory Acre and Thrift Gardens. And the people were found to be very responsive. Large landholders were arranging with their tenants to plant Victory Acres. Home and Farm Demonstra- tion Agents were promoting Thrift Gardens among the children. But before the planting season was over the attention of all War Savings workers was turned to preparation for the June drive. Limit Clubs During the early months of the campaign there were several special drives announced and urged by the State Headquarters, but they were undertaken and pushed by only a limited number of coun- ties. Mention has already been made of the effort in December to get em- ployers to use Stamps as Christmas gifts and in the payment of bonuses. The week of March 4th Was set apart for the formation of County Limit Clubs to be composed of those who pledged themselves to save systematically and purchase $1000 worth of War Savings Stamps dur- ing the year. The National Headquarters announced that it expected one per cent of the population of North Carolina — or twenty-five thou- sand — to become limit members. Wherever canvasses were organized to get limit members they were successful. Forsyth County secured $139,000 in limit pledges in about an hour's time. Cleveland County secured more than its allotment of limit members. The drive for limit members was continued till March 16 and then turned into a drive for $500 members, with the goal of securing twenty thousand $500 members. Complete figures on the results of these drives were 26 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 not secured, but on March 22 the State Headquarters announced that $1,702,000 had been secured in pledges. War Savings Societies and Army of Thrift In the beginning it was contemplated that War Savings Societies should be one of the big features of the campaign. Through these Societies the Army of Thrift was to be mobilized. This army was to be composed of those who pledged themselves to save and economize and to get others to save, economize, and invest their savings in War Savings Stamps. There were to be ranks — Captain, Major, Colonel, General — in the Army of Thrift, the same as in the regular army, and distinctions of grade were to be marked by distinguishing badges. School children were fascinated by the idea of the Army of Thrift, and were eager to become soldiers and later officers in the Army. Having failed to make much out of North Carolina Day in the schools on account of the bad weather, the State Director centered his attention upon February 22, which Dr. Joyner had designated as Thrift Day and for its observance had prepared excellent programs. Governor Bickett asked all the courts to be adjourned on that day so that the judges and attorneys and officers of the court might make War Sav- ings addresses in the schools. The State Director requested that a War Savings Society be organized in every school room and that Stamps be had for sale at the school on February 22. Results on Thrift Day were much more gratifying than they had been on North Carolina Day. The meaning of the campaign was better understood, the weather was not so inclement, and the teachers were still under the inspiration of the Institute which had been held only a few days previous. The month between February 22 and March 22 was, perhaps, the richest period of the year for War Savings Societies. They were organized in school rooms, in factories, in women's clubs, in offices, lodges and church societies. It was reported to the State Headquarters that a society had been organized in every school room of every school house, white and colored, in New Hanover County. Several counties reported a society organized in every white school in the county. The records of towns and counties in the organization of War Savings Societies were the news features of the day. A considerable portion of Miss Herring's time was taken looking after these societies. In addition to her other duties, she undertook to prepare a bi-weekly graded program for their regular monthly meetings. By March 15th five hundred War Savings Societies with an estimated membership of twenty-five thousand had been reported to State Headquarters. On March 25th North Caro- lina was ninth from the top of the States in the number of War Savings Societies. By April 14th seven hundred War Savings Societies had been reported from fifty counties. On May 2 it was announced that North Carolina had eight hundred and eleven properly organized and IN NORTH CAROLINA 27 properly reported War Savings Societies. This put her in the lead of all the Southern States. The societies were growing so rapidly and bulking so large in importance in the campaign that the State Director made provision for a field-worker who would give her entire time to War Savings Societies. For the months of June, July, and August, he secured the services of Miss Mary G. Shotwell, of the Lenoir County schools. Family Limit Societies One departure in the War Savings Society idea was the Family Limit War Savings Society of North Carolina, composed of families in the name of each member of which $1,000 worth of War Savings Stamps of the issue of 1918 had been purchased. Up to the end of the year two hundred and forty Limit Families had been reported to the State Headquarters, representing an investment of $796,000 in War Savings Stamps. The largest investor in Stamps in the State and, for that matter, in the United States, so far as the State Headquarters was able to ascertain, was Mr. J. A. Jones of Charlotte, who invested in War Savings Stamps $15,000 — $1,000 each for himself, his wife, and each of his thirteen children. Mr. C. E. Neisler of Kings Mountain was second with $10,000, and Mr. C. A. Williams of Charlotte, third, with $9,000. Among the Limit Families was one colored family — that of Dr. C. H. Hines of Edenton, who invested $4,000 in Stamps. To each of the Limit Families the State Director issued a certificate bear- ing the name of each member of the family. 100% Colleges Paralleling the work in the public schools was that in the colleges of the State. In December, 1917, it had been announced that every student at the University of North Carolina had pledged himself to purchase one or more War Savings Stamps. In the spring the State Director conceived the plan of declaring a college 100 per cent in which every student pledged himself to buy one or more War Sav- ings Stamps. The proposition was first presented to Rutherford College by one of the members of a Flying Squadron operating in Burke County, and the students responded so heartily that itineraries of the field workers were arranged so as to reach every college in the State before the commencement with the appeal. Salem, Lenoir, and Rutherford were the only three colleges that officially reported 100 per cent. But every college in the State would have easily and gladly won this distinction if the campaign among them, already planned and announced, had not been abandoned before it was scarcely begun. 28 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 100% Industrial Plants Alongside the colleges the factories and mills of the State were eager to make themselves 100 per cent by having every employee pledge to buy at least one War Savings Stamp during the year. This proposition was first presented to the employees of the Marion Hosiery Mills, Marion, and they responded eagerly. But this plan also was never carried out completely. IN NORTH CAROLINA 29 CHAPTER III The June Drive The Turn of the Campaign It must arouse the curiosity of the reader why so many plans of the War Savings Campaign were started and got under way during the first months of 1918 and then abandoned before they were worked to the finish — namely, War Savings Societies, Victory Acres and Thrift Gardens, Flying Squadrons, making colleges and industrial plants 100 per cent in War Savings. The explanation is that a sharp turn, a very sharp, turn in the War Savings Campaign, was taken the first of May. The New York Conference The latter part of April Colonel Fries received a telegram from Mr. Vanderlip calling him to a conference of State Directors and other War Savings workers in New York on May 1 and asking him, in the meantime, to hold in abeyance all the plans that he might have for the future War Savings work. In compliance with this request, the State Director held the War Savings work in North Carolina in statu quo dur- ing the latter part of April and, taking with him Mr. Stephenson and Mr. Milloway, met Mr. Vanderlip and the other State Directors of the South and East in conference at the Plaza Hotel in New York on May 1. At this conference Mr. Vanderlip announced that by the adoption and operation of a certain plan, Nebraska had oversubscribed its allotment in March, and that he would ask the other States to adopt this plan, with certain necessary modifications. After an all- day's session of discussion, the State Directors assured Mr. Vanderlip that they would work this plan in their respective States. The Plan of the June Drive The plan was to have President Wilson designate a certain day as National War Savings Day, to have a post-card mailed to each adult citizen, signed by the State Director, calling upon him to attend a meet- ing at the school house of his district on that day and pledge himself to buy a definite number of War Savings Stamps per month during the balance of the year. Immediately on returning, the State Director held conferences with his State Headquarters force to modify the Nebraska plan so as to make it fit the special needs of the State. It was found necessary to make the township and ward, rather than the school district, the unit of operation, and to make it a campaign of a 30 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 week, culminating on National War Savings Day, rather than stake everything upon one day. The chief features of the plan of the June Drive, as announced, were as follows : ( 1 ) a series of district con- ferences to acquaint the county chairmen with the plan; (2) a meet- ing of the local postmasters at the central accounting office of the county to provide for a supply of Stamps to meet the unusual demand that would result from the intensive drive; (3) the copying of the name and address of every individual who was able to buy one or more Stamps into a Pledge Record Book; (4) reconstructing the county organization so as to have a chairman for every township and ward, a leader for every school-house, and enough canvassers for every com- munity; (5) designating Sunday, June 23, as North Carolina War Savings Sundays and asking Sunday-School superintendents and teachers and ministers to present War Savings to their respective audiences on that day; (6) making a house-to-house canvass for pledges during the first four days of the following week; and (7) conducting a meeting in each school-house at 6 o'clock in the afternoon of Friday, June 28, to receive reports of the canvass and to secure additional pledges enough to raise the balance of the township's or ward's allotment. Presi- dent Wilson had previously designted June 28th as National War Sav- ings day and said, "I earnestly appeal to every man, woman and child to pledge themselves on or before the 28th of June to save constantly and to buy as regularly as possible the securities of the Government and to do this as far as possible through membership in War Savings Societies. The 28th of June ends this special period of enlistment in the great volunteer Army of Production and Saving here at home. May there be none unenlisted on that day." The District Conferences The first step towards getting ready for the June drive was the series of district conferences. These were held as follows: Winston- Salem, May 9; Charlotte, May 11; Fayetteville, May 13; Wilming- ton, May 14; New Bern, May 15; Elizabeth City, May 16; Weldon, May 17; and Asheville, May 21. Those who helped conduct these conferences were Messrs. H. E. Fries, J. K. Norfleet, John L. Gilmer, Richard G. Stockton and Gilbert T. Stephenson. Each conference was designated to reach the nearby counties. The aim of it was to instruct the county chairmen in the plan of campaign and arouse them to go into the drive whole-heartedly. The first task the county chair- men were set to was reconstructing their organizations. The sub- committees representing the several interests, industries, and professions of the county were not practicable in such a drive ; a compact, geogra- phical organization was necessary. Back at the State Headquarters everything and everybody were centered upon the June drive. The Publicity Department's efforts IN NORTH CAROLINA 31 were taken off War Savings Societies, Victory Acres and Thrift Gar- dens, 100 per cent colleges and industries, and thrift propaganda and turned to the June drive. The Director of Organization, Mr. Stockton, was busy getting the County Chairmen to appoint township and ward chairmen and get them, in turn, to appoint canvassers and leaders of school house meetings. Miss Mary Shotwell, who had come to pro- mote War Savings Societies in the schools, was retained to help super- intend getting out the enormous amount of mail and advertising matter which the State Headquarters had to issue. The State Headquarters worked and asked each county to work under the following calendar: Calendar of War Savings Drive May 28-June 3 — Copy War Savings Pledge Records (Form 2). June 3 — Postmasters' Conference. June 3-8 — Copy Canvassers' Cards (Form 15). June 8 — Conference of Township and Ward Chairmen with County Chairmen. June 10-15 — Conference of Canvassers and Conductors of School- house Meetings with Township and Ward Chairmen. June 17 — War Savings Pledge Records (Form 2) returned by Township and Ward Chairmen to County Chairmen to be used in addressing cards summoning to school house meetings (Form 8). June 17-21 — Address cards summoning citizens to school-house meetings (Form 8). June 22 — War Savings Workers' Conference — County Chairman and Assistants, Township and Ward Chairmen, Canvassers, Conduc- tors of School-house Meetings, and Participants in Programs of War Savings Sunday (June 23), and National War Savings Day (June 28). June 23-28 — North Carolina War Savings Week. June 23 — North Carolina War Savings Sunday. June 24 — House-to-house canvass. • June 25 — House-to-house Canvass; Meeting at night for reports. June 26 — House-to-house canvass. June 27 — House-to-house canvass ; Meeting at night for reports. June 28 — National War Savings Day. June 29 — Meeting of Township and Ward Chairmen to return Records and Pledge Cards and tabulate results of drive. The State Headquarters had to accompany each shipment of supplies to the County Chairmen and call attention to each step in the drive by special letters. It had also to get out special letters to the members of the County Committee under the original plan of 32 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 organization, to the postmasters, to the banks, to the insurance men, to the lawyers, to the Sunday School superintendents, to the ministers, to the clerks of court, to the sheriffs, and to the school superintendents. In addition to what could be accomplished by the mail, the district chairmen, of whom mention has already been made, visited the coun- ties in their respective districts, some of them two or three times, to help the chairmen and see that they were proceeding with preparations in orderly fashion. The State Headquarters did not undertake to furnish speakers for the several counties, but only furnished a list of available speakers from which the County Chairmen could make their own arrangements. The State Headquarters followed the plan as announced almost to the letter, and while many of the County Chairmen followed the plan faithfully, some varied it slightly, and a few did not follow it at all. It is remarkable that just in proportion as a county followed the plan in letter and spirit, its results justified the effort, while the few counties that abandoned the plan were disappointing in their results. Results of June Drive As some of the counties had not completed the canvass on June 28, the drive was continued through July 4th. When reports from all the counties were in it was found that $30,390,790 had been secured in pledges which — it must be remembered — included the sales up to that time. Nine counties had been reported as having subscribed their allotment or more: Wilson, Cabarrus, Forsyth, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Perquimans, and Pitt. The following were three-fourths over: Chowan, Franklin, Granville, Guilford, Nash, Northampton, Onslow, Orange, Scotland, Stokes, Surry, Union, Vance, Washington, and Wayne. The following were over half over: Ala- mance, Beaufort, Buncombe, Burke, Camden, Carteret, Catawba, Chat- ham, Cleveland, Craven, Davie, Davidson, Durham, Gaston, Halifax, Harnett, Hertford, Jackson, Johnston, McDowell, Mecklenburg, Mont- gomery, Moore, New Hanover, Pamlico, Pasquotank, Randolph, Rich- mond, Rockingham, Rowan, Stanly, Swain, Wake, Warren, and Yadkin. The balance of the counties were under half over. The State lacked about $18,000,000 having subscribed its allotment. The Follow-Up Drives No sooner had it been realized at the State Headquarters that the State had not subscribed its allotment than plans were laid for a series of follow-up drives in the counties that had not secured as much as three-fourths of their allotment. One of the difficulties of the June drive in some of the counties was that it came in the midst of the wheat harvest. It was chiefly to accommodate the farmers that the IN NORTH CAROLINA 33 school house meetings were set as late as six in the afternoon. Another weakness noticeable in the drive was the lack of experienced canvassers. In many counties the number of pledges were enough but the pledges were for such small amounts and so out of keeping with the means of the pledgers that the total subscription was disappointing. Instead of having the follow-up drive the same week in every county, the State Director had the County Chairman to indicate his first, second, and third choice of any week between the 15th of July and the 15th of September. While it was realized at the State Headquarters that July and August were probably the leanest months of the year for soliciting pledges, they were the only months during which the War Savings Campaign was not apt to conflict with some other War effort. The Fourth Liberty Loan had already been announced for the early fall and the Allied War Relief Campaign to follow immediately after- wards. While most of the County Chairmen chose one of the last two weeks of August or the first two weeks of September for their drive, enough drives were put on late in July and the first of August to give the follow-up work considerable momentum. By the 14th of August Franklin, Nash, Iredell, and Union had been reported over, making fourteen counties in all. The Flying Squadron idea, started early in the campaign but abandoned on account of the Third Liberty Loan and the June drive, was now adapted to the follow-up drives. Results of Follow-Up Drives The series of follow-up drives running from July 15 to Septem- ber 15 resulted in adding $6,293,054 to the State's subscription, making the total subscription on October 1, when pledge-taking ceased, $37,- 083,444. .Besides Franklin, jNash, ilredell, Union, and !Gates al- ready mentioned, Anson, Chowan, Henderson, and Mecklenburg had subscribed their allotment, making nineteen counties 100 per cent in subscription. Redemption of Pledges As soon as the follow-up drives for pledges were over, the State Headquarters turned its attention to the redemption of these $20,000,000 (round figures and an estimate only) of unredeemed pledges. At the end of the June drive the County Chairmen had been instructed to keep the pledge-cards in their possession until further notice. It was recognized that a distribution of the pledge-cards before a county had subscribed its allotment would cause confusion. But as soon as pledge- taking was over the County Chairmen were instructed to dissemble the cards according to the postoffice or agency at which the Stamps were to be bought, to alphabetize the cards, and to make four lists of the name, address, and amount of the pledge — one for the agency, one 34 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 for the County Chairman, and two for the State Director. Where one failed to indicate where he meant to buy his Stamps, his card was sent to his postoffice. The State Headquarters furnished three franked post-cards to be sent to each pledger reminding him of his pledge — one to be sent by the County Chairman, one by the postoffice or agency, and one by the State Director. This plan of pledge-redemption in- volved an enormous amount of work upon the State Director and County Chairman, and yet some such plan was necessary, since so many pledgers were waiting to be notified where their cards were. IN NORTH CAROLINA 35 CHAPTER IV Final Drive The War Savings work, for anything except the redemption of pledges, was practically at a standstill during the month of October. The latter part of October the State Director announced a Victory Drive November 28-December 6, which was meant not only to get the outstanding pledges redeemed but also to get enough additional pledges to secure the balance of the State's allotment. The plan was to have a meeting of War Savings workers in every township or ward on Thanksgiving Day, to constitute teams of workers, to divide the territory, and, between then and December 6, to make a house-to- house canvass of the community to ascertain (1) how much each family had already invested in War Savings Stamps and (2) how much it would invest towards the balance of the State's allotment. District Conferences Preparatory to this drive a series of District conferences were held as follows: Elizabeth City, November 6; Washington, November 7; Tarboro, November 8; Raleigh, November 9; Bryson City, November 12; Hendersonville, November 13; Marion, November 14; Hickory, November 15; Statesville, November 18; Hamlet, November 19; Wil- mington, November 20; and Greensboro, November 21. To these conferences were invited county chairmen, township chairmen, mem- bers of the State Executive Committee, and men and women who had been active in other branches of War work, such as Liberty Loan and Allied War Relief. The conferences were conducted by Messrs. O. B. Eaton, John L. Gilmer, Gilbert T. Stephenson and Miss Kate Herring. In those parts of the State where there were many colored people a separate conference was conducted for them by Dr. S. G. Atkins, assisted by Mr. Eaton and Mr. Stephenson. The conferences, as a rule, were very well attended, despite the fact that they came in the midst of the epidemic of influenza. The conference at Raleigh had to be held in sections, not permitting over a dozen to assemble at a time. The one announced for Asheville had to be moved to Hendersonville. The one announced for Salisbury had to be moved to Statesville. The Victory Drive was not fruitful of pledges. A complete re- port was never received at the State Headquarters. The Thanks- giving meetings were rained out all over the State. In some of the counties the County Chairmen did their best to put on the canvass and got fairly good results. This is particularly true of Beaufort, 36 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Cumberland, and Guilford. But in most of the others the County Chairman felt that it was useless, under all the circumstances, to try to put on another canvass. The Conference of December 4 As soon as the State Director saw that the Victory Drive would not put the State "over the top," he called into conference at Winston- Salem on December 4, 1918, the following War Savings workers: E. J. Barnes, Wilson; W. J. Berryman, Edenton; J. E. Brinn, Sanford; S. P. Burton, Asheville; G. L. Clendenin, Lincolnton; S. P. Collier, Jr., Winston-Salem; A. M. Dixon, Charlotte; F. W. Dixon, Snow Hill; H. E. Fries, Winston-Salem; W. G. Gaither, Elizabeth City; D. F. Giles, Raleigh; John L. Gilmer, Winston-Salem; Wilson Gray, Winston-Salem; F. E. Griffith, Winston-Salem; James G. Hanes, Winston-Salem; B. D. Haynes, Durham; W. M. Hendren, Winston- Salem; Eugene Holt, Burlington; Beverly Lake, Salisbury; Paul Leonard, Statesville; J. G. Lewis, Statesville; J. S. McNider, Hert- ford; W. R. Martin, Winston-Salem; Will Maslin, Winston-Salem; J. H. Matthews, Windsor; Van Melchor, Winston-Salem; Archibald Nichols, Asheville; William Perlstein, Raleigh; W. D. Pethel, Spencer; T. F. Pettus, Wilson; Dr. Chas. E. Reynal, Statesville; Dr. Howard Rondthaler, Winston-Salem; M. L. Shipman, Raleigh; J. Clinton Smoot, N. Wilkesboro; J. G. Stikeleather, Asheville; W. B. Strachen, Salisbury; and Leon T. Vaughan, Nashville. At this conference it was decided to apportion what the State still lacked in subscriptions among the business concerns of the State ac- cording to the minimum commercial rating of each. Several of the conferes agreed to present the matter to the business concerns of certain counties. Certain men also agreed to make a special appeal to the indus- tries with which they were connected : Mr. A. H. Bahnson, to the cotton mills; Mr. James G. Hanes, to the knitting mills; Mr. H. A. Pfohl, to the builders and contractors; Mr. Will Maslin, to the fertilizer compa- nies ; Mr. Van Melchor, to the bottling concerns ; Mr. A. W. Cornwall, to the box industries; Mr. J. Clinton Smoot of North Wilkesboro, to the tanneries; Mr. Wilson Gray, to the tobacco factories; Mr. J. K. Norfleet, to the tobacco warehouses. In addition to the appeals that these men made to their several industries, the State Headquarters made an appeal by letter to every store, manufactory, and other busi- ness house in the State to invest in Stamps its proportionate part of the State's deficit, suggesting that, after both the business and each member of the concern had bought the limit, it might absorb a great many more Stamps to be given as Christmas gifts or paid out in extra dividends and bonuses. Supplementing the men who had undertaken to go into certain counties, the State Director sent as many field workers as he could command at the time into the counties that specially needed help. IN NORTH CAROLINA 37 But with all this effort, it is doubtful if more than $200,000 was added to the total. Special Mention of Workers It would not be possible or proper to make special mention of each of the hundreds of patriotic men and women in North Carolina who rendered signal service in the War Savings Campaign — men and women who gave their time and energy to the cause, without counting the cost. But with some of these the War Savings cause must be forever inseparably connected. One of them is Governor Bickett. Not only did Governor Bickett use the prestige of his office in behalf of War Savings but he gave of himself freely, gladly, without stint. During the entire month of September, accompanied first by Dr. A. H. Patterson, of the University of North Carolina, and later by Mr. J. G. Stikeleather, of Asheville, he toured fourteen of the mountain counties pleading the causes of both the War and War Savings. Another of these men is Dr. J. Y. Joyner, then Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina. Not only did he formally commit his educational forces to the obligation of pushing War Sav- ings but he threw himself — heart and body — into the campaign. Among the men who represented the State Headquarters in the field with special effect were Mr. O. B. Eaton and W. M. Scott, of Winston-Salem; Dr. Chas. E. Reynal and Mr. S. B. Miller, of Statesville. Mr. Eaton became associated with the State Head- quarters early in the campaign and was in the work to the end. Gifted with the power of eloquent and appealing speech, he used his powers in behalf of War Savings. He was, in deed and in truth, a flaming evangelist of patriotism all over North Carolina. And when the record of the June Drive was completed it was found that the section in which he had worked most had made the best showing of any in the State. Mr. Miller and Mr. Scott placed at the disposal of the State Director their unusual gift of personal solicitation. Few men in the State were their equal and none their superior in presenting the War Savings cause and in getting pledges. Dr. Chas. E. Reynal, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Statesville, early saw in the War Savings campaign moral and spiritual values which challenged his interest. Not only did he give freely of his time for public address but he aided in the organization and in the personal solicitation as well. Mr. F. W. Dixon, County Chairman of Greene County that had already oversubscribed its allotment by 28 per cent, took ten of his best workers and went into Rutherford and McDowell Counties and spent a week canvassing with the local committees. Mr. J. S. Mc- Nider of Perquimans, at the request of the State Director, went into 38 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Gates County, which had subscribed only 7 per cent of its allotment in June, and spent two weeks helping the local committee perfect a working organization, put on a follow-up drive, and had the satisfaction of seeing Gates oversubscribe its allotment by 15 per cent. Mr. Milton W. Harrison of New York, who had given such a distinct impetus to the campaign in its early stages, came back and gave the first week in September to work in Guilford, Alamance, Orange, Durham, Cumberland, and Craven. The Wounded Soldiers In addition to these, each one of whom was an experienced War Savings worker, the Army Hospital at Waynesville furnished the State Director at least a dozen young American soldiers who had just returned from the front, gassed or wounded. Some of these boys had even taken part in the spring War drive which had turned the tide and begun Germany's retreat. While these boys were not experienced speak- ers and knew little about War Savings, they could tell their experiences. They were sent into the counties in pairs and were permitted to stay in a county as much as a week. They were accompanied by local speakers and experienced workers. They accomplished in the rural counties and remote districts what Captain Fallon and Lieutenant Choyce had done in the cities and larger towns of the State earlier in the year. And these soldiers warmed up to their War Savings work and took pride in the number of pledges taken at their meetings the same as they took pride in the number of Germans taken prisoners or accounted for on the battlefront. The following citizens gave one or more weeks of their time be- tween July 15 and September 15 to do War Savings work in some county other than their own : J. M. Broughton, Raleigh ; Owen Gudger, Asheville; R. W. Herring, Fayetteville ; F. S. Vernay, Winston- Salem; E. F. Aydlett, Elizabeth City; Marshall W. Bell, Murphy; E. J. Barnes, Wilson; J. G. Lewis, Statesville; Santford Martin, Raleigh; W. C. Manning, Williamston; W. W Neal, Marion; J. G. Stikeleather, Asheville; L. S. Tomlinson, Wilson; M. L. Ship- man, Raleigh; J. E. Debnam, Snow Hill; Rev. Thomas Grant, Hook- erton; H. E. Austin, Greenville; B. D. Ebbs, Burnsville; M. E. Block, Greensboro; D. Weatherspoon, Murphy; and C. W. Wilson, Greenville. One hesitates to mention any of these men when he cannot men- tion all. The insurance companies of the State, particularly the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, encouraged their agents every- where to be active in the sale of War Savings Stamps. The railroads operating in the State encouraged their agents to sell Stamps. When he begins calling these to mind, others whose work was scarcely, if IN NORTH CAROLINA 39 at all, less resultful, come clamoring for mention: D. C. Barnes of Murf reesboro ; Mrs. Ollie Webster of Siler City; Mrs. N. Mel. Moore, postmaster at Warrenton; J. G. Stikeleather, Owen Gudger, and William Burkel of Asheville; D. F. Giles of Ral- eigh. As early as February Mr. Giles wrote the State Director: "Use me anywhere for anything (for sixty days), for I must do something for my country, and I believe this is the greatest work for us all to do at this time. I have three brothers in the War, one in France, giving their services and lives, too, if they are needed, and here I am to do all I can do. Put me to work." The Women To the women of North Carolina acknowledgment must be made for their most excellent service to the War Savings cause. Club women, school teachers, home demonstration agents, housewives — they all fell into the work, heart and body. Mrs. Clarence Johnson, President of the North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs, was constantly promoting War Savings. A large majority of the War Savings Societies was organized by women. Thrift Gardens were the special care of country women. During the June drive a colored woman in Warren County, a school teacher, by herself secured over $1,500 in pledges. Without the women's aid the War Savings record of North Carolina would be far short of what it is. 40 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 CHAPTER V. Financial Results of the Campaign The results of the War Savings Campaign must be inventoried under two heads — first the amount of money realized, second the nature and amount of good done the people of the State. During the first half of the campaign educating our people in patriotism and thrift was the chief object and the raising of money incidental; during the latter half of the campaign raising money was the chief object and teaching thrift and arousing patriotism incidental. Pledges The fruits of the campaign in terms of money, being tangible and material, may be definitely counted. Our objective was $48,666,- 380 or $20.00 per capita, maturity value, for every man, woman and child — white and black — in the State. This is the same basis of apportionment that obtained over the entire nation. At the end of the June drive, as has already been stated, the State had subscribed $30,790,390 or not quite two-thirds of its allotment. At the end of the series of follow-up drives on October 1, the State had subscribed $37,083,444 or a little over three-fourths of its allotment. The following table shows the portion of the $48,666,380 alloted to each County on the basis of population, the amount that had been subscribed in each County by October 1, when pledge-taking ceased, and the per cent of each county's allotment that had been subscribed at that time: County Quota Alamance 631,660 Alexander 255,020 Alleghany 170,380 Anson 560,220 Ashe 419,620 Avery 174,020 Beaufort 679,280 Bertie 506,840 Bladen 396,160 Brunswick 317,500 Burke 470,960 Buncombe 1,095,540 Cabarrus 577,280 Caldwell 452,720 Camden 124,080 Carteret 303,060 Amount Per Cent Pledged Pledged 551,100 87.23 128,000 50.19 131,538 77.20 592,860 105.82 143,000 34.07 100,000 57.46 615,000 90.54 475,520 93.82 100,000 25.24 52,000 16.40 370,000 78.56 921,497 83.20 577,280 100.00 180,000 39.75 97,000 78.49 210,000 69.28 IN NORTH CAROLINA 41 County Quota Caswell 326,860 Catawba 614,180 Chatham 497,960 Cherokee 310,980 Chowan 248,660 Clay 86,000 Cleveland 648,860 Columbus 616,440 Craven 563,060 Cumberland 674,380 Currituck 169,240 Dare 106,500 Davidson 646,880 Davie 294,660 Duplin 559,720 Durham 776,080 Edgecombe 704,220 Forsyth 1,040,840 Franklin 543,220 Gaston ., 815,380 Gates 230,000 Graham 104,480 Granville 552,240 Greene 287,760 Guilford 1,330,940 Halifax 828,220 Harnett 533,780 Haywood 462,440 Henderson 357,760 Hertford 339,580 Hoke 268,000 Hyde 194,480 Iredell 754,920 Jackson 285,960 Johnston 910,820 Jones 191,860 Lee 250,280 Lenoir 500,920 Lincoln 376,900 McDowell 297,840 Macon 268,200 Madison 442,900 Martin 391,540 Mecklenburg 1,474,660 Mitchell 205,260 Montgomery 329,280 Moore 374,220 Nash 742,000 New Hanover 704,820 Northampton 491,100 Onslow 310,760 Orange 331,400 Pamlico 219,260 Pasquotank 367,240 Amount Per Cent Pledged Pledged 160,000 48.95 475,000 77.50 260,000 52.21 148,000 47.59 253,634 102.00 17,650 20.52 500,000 77.07 238,000 35.52 335,000 59.49 300,000 44.48 70,000 41.36 25,000 23.47 511,000 78.90 200,000 67.84 233,000 41.62 640,000 82.46 720,000 102.24 1,250,000 120.09 564,000 103.62 675,000 82.56 270,000 117.39 41,420 39.54 412,078 74.62 370,000 128.54 1,100,000 82.64 625,000 77.86 325,000 60.88 396,514 85.74 365,000 102.02 299,252 88.12 125,200 43.02 160,000 82.21 755,000 100.01 257,300 89.97 750,000 82.34 208,473 108.66 210,000 83.90 501,000 100.01 212,084 56.26 189,235 63.53 150,000 55.17 265,000 59.89 426,000 108.80 1,489,660 101.01 148,000 72.10 230,496 70.00 178,000 47.59 744,000 100.26 488,296 69.28 440,000 89.59 300,000 96.53 256,000 77.54 150,000 68.42 235,000 63.96 42 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 County Quota Pender 340,360 Perquimans 243,180 Person 381,840 Pitt 799,480 Polk 168,080 Randolph 648,800 Richmond - 432,800 Robeson 1,059,280 Rockingham 801,720 Rowan 825,460 Rutherford 624,480 Sampson 659,600 Scotland 337,980 Stanly 438,000 Stokes 443,320 Surry 653,520 Swain 228,860 Transylvania 158,200 Tyrell 114,820 Union 732,100 Vance 427,360 Wake 1,391,040 Warren 445,860 Washington 243,360 Watauga 298,240 Wayne 785,360 Wilkes 666,200 Wilson 621,920 Yadkin 339,420 Yancey 265,340 North Carolina $48,666,380 From the above table it appears that on October 1 nineteen coun- ties had subscribed their full allotment; six, between 90 and 100 per cent ; twenty-nine between 75 and 90 per cent ; twenty-seven, between 50 and 75 per cent, and nineteen, less than 50 per cent. In per cent of allotment subscribed, Greene County led with 128.54 per cent; in total subscriptions, Mecklenburg led, with $1,489,660 subscribed. Sales by Months Sales, rather than pledges, count at the Treasury of the United States. War Savings Stamps were put on sale December 3, 1917. While exact figures are not at hand, it is believed that not over $50,000 was invested in War Savings Stamps in North Carolina during December, 1917. Only $10,000,000 was invested in Stamps in the United States that month. The following table gives the sales Amount Per Cent Pledged Pledged 200,000 58.75 243,180 100.00 275,000 72.28 861,655 107.77 109,720 65.29 385,000 59.18 279,814 64.65 650,000 52.86 650,000 81.06 615,000 74.57 311.635 49.74 200,000 31.99 275,000 81.36 341,350 77.85 371,900 83.88 525,000 80.33 147,000 63.75 90,000 56.36 81,255 77.67 734,000 100.25 325,000 76.04 1,101,000 79.15 300,000 67.28 175,000 71.08 100,000 33.53 650.000 82.77 125,000 18.76 740,158 119.01 205,850 60.64 121,940 45.95 $37,083,444 76.20 IN NORTH CAROLINA 43 by months after that, always counting the maturity value of the Stamps : Month Month's Sales Total Sales December No Report No Report January No Report No Report February No Report $1,051,038 March $1,188,064 2,339,102 April 2,002,299 4,339,401 May 1,546,529 5,885,930 June 1,650,088 7,536,018 July 4,707,345 12,243,363 August 2,206,715 14,450,078 September 2,560,489 17,010,567 October 2,554,065 19,565,532 November 2,338,818 21,904,350 December 5,745,047 27,649,397 North Carolina sold $27,649,397,* maturity cent of its allotment. val ue, or 56.80 per Sales by Counties The following tables show the total amount sold by each County, the per cent of its allotment sold, and the 'standing of each Countv among the 100 Counties of the State: County Allotment Alamance 631,660 Alexander 255,020 Alleghany 170,380 Anson 560,220 Ashe 419,620 Avery 174,020 Beaufort 679,280 Bertie 506,840 Bladen 396,160 Brunswick 317,500 Burke 470,960 Buncombe 1,095,540 Cabarrus 577,280 Caldwell 452,720 Camden 124,080 Carteret 303,060 Caswell 326,860 Per cent Standing Ami. Sold Sold In Sales 452,816 71.69 21 99,043 38.84 65 30,159 17.70 93 403,492 72.02 20 76,161 18.15 92 101,890 58.55 34 299,613 44.11 55 196,281 38.61 67 57,430 14.41 98 29,038 9.14 100 255,812 54.32 43 964,823 88.07 6 564,293 97.75 3 123,268 27.23 88 44,961 36.24 71 129,587 42.76 58 111,848 34.19 79 *This total represents maturity, rather than cash, value and includes sales by banks to January 10, 1919. The total of sales reported by the Treasury Department, on the other hand, which is $21,085,388, represents cash sales to December 31, 1918, and does not include redemptions — that is, Stamps cashed in during the year. This explains the apparent dis- crepancy between the figures published by the Treasury Department and those used in this volume. All the figures of sales used in this history are of maturity value. 44 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Per cent Standing County Allotment Amt. Sold Sold In Sales Catawba 614,180 437,977 71.31 22 Chatham 497,960 211,382 42.43 59 Cherokee • 310,980 155,375 49.95 49 Chowan 246,660 186,744 75.66 13 Clay 86,000 13,493 15.69 97 Cleveland 648,860 411,503 63.42 28 Columbus 616,440 150,127 24.35 90 Craven 563,060 298,734 53.04 45 Cumberland 674,380 232,799 34.52 75 Currituck 169,240 24,302 14.36 99 Dare 106,500 26,879 25.24 89 Davidson 646,880 466,791 72.16 19 Davie 294,660 198,971 67.53 25 Duplin 559,660 199,206 35.59 73 Durham 776,080 543,162 69.99 23 Edgecombe* 704,220 750,546 106.58 2 Forsyth 1,040,840 1,272,226 122.37 1 Franklin 543,220 267,725 49.29 50 Gaston 815,380 465,434 57.08 38 Gates ! 230,000 87,809 38.18 69 Graham 104,480 31,478 30.13 84 Granville 552,240 304,380 55.12 40 Greene 287,760 227,150 78.94 11 Guilford 1,330,940 990,957 74.45 15 Halifax 828,220 401,672 48.49 51 Harnett 533,780 206,022 38.59 68 Haywood 462,400 36S.813 79.57 10 Henderson 357,760 208,770 58.91 32 Hertford 339,580 187,850 55.35 39 Hoke 268,000 74,896 27.95 87 Hyde 194,480 78,273 40.25 63 Iredell 754,920 548,952 72.72 18 Jackson 285,960 89,097 31.16 82 Johnston 910,820 410,807 45.10 53 Jones 191,860 112,664 58.72 33 Lee 250,280 228,378 91.25 5 Lenoir 500,920 286,029 57.10 37 Lincoln 376,900 217,072 57.59 35 McDowell 297,840 154,274 51.79 46 Macon 268,200 96,016 35.71 72 Madison 442,900 239,206 54.09 44 Martin 391,540 169,840 43.37 56 Mecklenburg 1,474,660 1,072,934 72.76 17 Mitchell 205,260 70,462 34.33 77 Montgomery 329,280 141,579 42.99 57 Moore — 374,220 156,246 41.75 60 Nash* 742,000 213,077 28.72 86 New Hanover 704,820 404,129 57.34 36 Northampton 491,100 249,114 50.72 47 Onslow 310,760 142,949 45.99 52 Orange 331,400 241,654 72.92 16 Pamlico 219,260 77,170 35.19 74 Pasquotank 367,240 240,473 65.48 26 *A11 the sales made by the Rocky Mount agencies and postoffices were credited to Edgecombe County, though a large but altogether incalculable amount of Stamps was purchased by residents of Nash County. IN NORTH CAROLINA 45 County Allotment Pender 340,360 Perquimans 243,180 Person 381,840 Pitt 799,480 Polk 168,080 Randolph 648,800 Richmond 432,800 Robeson 1,059,280 Rockingham 801,720 Rowan 825,460 Rutherford 624,480 Sampson 659,600 Scotland 337,980 Stanly 438,000 Stokes 443,320 Surry 653,520 Swain 228,860 Transylvania 158,200 Tyrrell 114,820 Union 732,100 Vance 427,360 Wake 1,391,040 Warren 445,860 Washington 243,360 Watauga 298,240 Wayne 785,360 Wilkes — 666,200 Wilson 621,920 Yadkin 339,420 Yancy 265,340 North Carolina__$48,666,380 Per cent Standing Amt. Sold Sold In Sales 59,068 17.35 94 167,467 68.86 24 171,282 44.86 54 661,988 82.80 8 50,094 29.80 85 222,371 34.28 78 238,398 55.08 41 327,349 30.90 83 517,083 64.49 27 638,844 77.39 12 242,267 38.74 66 113,410 17.19 95 107,732 31.87 80 368,976 84.24 7 152,726 34.45 76 493,512 75.51 14 138,617 60.57 30 60,217 38.06 70 47,419 41.29 61 600,546 82.03 9 264,056 61.79 29 764,420 54.96 42 225,770 50.65 48 74,844 31.58 81 47,861 16.05 96 468,308 59.63 31 146,259 21.95 91 592,683 95.29 4 136,951 40.35 62 103,578 39.03 64 $27,649,397 56.80 Standing of Counties in War Savings Sales County Per Cent Standing County Per Cent Standing Forsyth 122.37 1 Edgecombe 106.58 2 Cabarrus 97.75 3 Wilson 95.29 4 Lee 91.25 5 Buncombe 88.07 6 Stanly 84.24 7 Pitt 82.80 8 Union 82.03 9 Haywood 79.57 10 Greene 78.94 11 Rowan 77.39 12 Chowan 75.66 13 Surry 75.51 14 Guilford 74.45 15 Orange 72.92 16 Mecklenburg 72.76 17 Iredell 72.72 18 Davidson 72.16 19 Anson 72.02 20 Alamance 71.69 21 Catawba 71.31 22 Durham 69.99 23 Perquimans 68.86 24 Davie 67.53 25 Pasquotank 65.48 26 Rockingham 64.49 27 Cleveland 63.42 28 Vance 61.79 29 Swain 60.57 30 Wayne 59.63 31 Henderson 58.91 32 Jones 58.72 33 Avery 58.55 34 Lincoln 57.59 35 New Hanover 57.34 36 Lenoir 57.10 37 Gaston 57.08 38 Hertford 55.35 39 Granville 55.12 40 46 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 County Per Cent Standing Richmond 55.08 41 Wake 54.96 42 Burke 54.32 43 Madison 54.09 44 Craven 53.04 45 McDowell 51.79 46 Northampton 50.72 47 Warren 50.64 48 Cherokee - 49.95 49 Franklin 49.29 50 Halifax 48.49 51 Onslow 45.99 52 Johnston 45.10 53 Person 44.86 54 Beaufort 44.11 55 Martin 43.37 56 Montgomery 42.99 57 Carteret 42.76 58 Chatham 42.43 59 Moore 41.75 60 Tyrrell 41.29 61 Yadkin 40.35 62 Hyde 40.25 63 Yancy 39.03 64 Alexander 38.84 65 Rutherford 38.74 66 Bertie 38.61 67 Harnett 38.59 68 Gates 38.18 69 Transylvania 38.06 70 County Per Cent Standing Camden 36.24 71 Macon 35.71 72 Duplin 35.59 73 Pamlico 35.19 74 Cumberland 34.52 75 Stokes 34.45 76 Mitchell 34.33 77 Randolph 34.28 78 Caswell 34.19 79 Scotland 31.87 80 Washington 31.58 81 Jackson 31 k 16 82 Robeson 30.90 83 Graham 30.13 84 Polk 29.80 85 Nash 28.72 86 Hoke 27.95 87 Caldwell 27.23 88 Dare 25.24 89 Columbus 24.35 90 Wilkes 21.95 91 Ashe 18.15 92 Alleghany 17.70 93 Pender 17.35 94 Sampson 17.19 95 Watauga 16.05 96 Clay 15.69 97 Bladen 14.41 98 Currituck 14.36 99 Brunswick 9.14 100 Only two Counties — namely, Forsyth and Edgecombe — sold their entire allotment; three, between 90 and 100 per cent; nine, between 75 and 90 per cent; thirty-four, between 50 and 75 per cent; and the other fifty-two, less than 50 per cent of their allotment. Per Capita Wealth An indication of the bigness of the undertaking to raise $20 per capita, with a limit of $1,000 upon the amount that could be owned by any one person, is shown by the per cent of the money value of the property of a county, as shown by the tax-books, that it would have taken to secure the War Savings allotment. To be sure, property is listed everywhere in North Carolina at far below its real value. And it is true that the difference between listed value and real value varies with individuals and with counties. But after all discounts because of these facts have been made, it remains that the listed property values compared with the War Savings allotment is an index to the enormity of the War Savings task. The following tables show the per capita wealth of each county as shown upon the tax-books of IN NORTH CAROLINA 47 1918, the per capita investment in War Savings Stamps and the per cent of per capita wealth invested in War Savings Stamps during 1918: Relation of War Savings Investment to Per Capita Wealth County Per Capita Wealth Per Capita Per Cent of Investment Per Capita Wealth in W.S.S. Invested in W.S.S. Alamance $421.37 Alexander 291.53 Alleghany 222.98 Anson 350.87 Ashe 213.72 Avery 277.13 Beaufort 334.02 Bertie 326.73 Bladen 338.14 Brunswick 318.57 Buncombe 611.27 Burke 310.16 Cabarrus • 522.57 Caldwell 280.59 Camden 284.31 Carteret 293.62 Caswell 214.55* Catawba — 370.53 Chatham 309.21* Cherokee 362.63 Chowan 353.89 Clay 283.39 Cleveland 360.81* Columbus 371.18 Craven 455.31 Cumberland 379.16 Currituck 284.99 Dare 167.73 Davidson 448.33* Davie 378.14 Duplin 367.21 Durham 985.99 Edgecombe 468.35 Forsyth 712.96 Franklin 321.40* Gaston 577.19 Gates 360.99 Graham 354.22 Granville 401.39 Greene 355.25 Guilford 525.99* Halifax 481.92 Harnett 389.80 Haywood 375.67 Henderson 367.59 Hertford 364.86 Hoke 315.74 Hyde 269.40 Iredell 427.26 $14.33 7.76 3.54 14.40 3.63 11.71 8.82 7.72 2.88 1.82 17.60 10.86 19.55 5.44 7.24 8.55 6.83 14.26 8.48 9.98 15.13 3.13 12.68 4.86 10.60 6.90 2.87 5.04 14.42 13.50 7.11 13.99 21.31 24.47 9.85 11.41 7.63 6.02 11.02 15.78 14.89 9.69 7.71 15.91 11.78 11.07 5.59 8.04 14.54 3.40 2.66 1.59 4.10 1.698 4.22 2.64 2.36 .85 .57 2.87 3.50 3.74 1.94 2.54 2.912 3.18 3.85 2.742 2.75 4.27 1.10 3.51 1.31 2.33 1.82 1.07 3.00 3.22 3.57 1.94 1.42 4.34 3.43 3.06 1.99 2.114 1.699 2.745 4.44 2.83 2.01 1.98 4.23 3.20 3.03 1.77 2.98 3.403 Standing 24 53 87 11 84 8 54 66 99 100 46 21 17 78 57 42 31 13 50 48 5 95 20 93 67 80 97 38 28 19 79 91 3 22 35 74 69 83 49 2 47 72 75 7 30 36 82 39 23 48 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Per Capita Per Capita Per Cent of County Wealth Investment Per Capita Wealth Standing in W.S.S. Invested in W.S.S. Jackson 319.11 6.23 1.95 77 Johnston 426.88 9.02 2.113 71 Jones 365.82 11.74 3.21 29 Lee 420.99 18.25 4.33 4 Lenoir 421.97 11.42 2.70 51 Lincoln 371.93 11.51 3.09 33 Macon 247.19 7.14 2.88 45 Madison 288.42 10.81 3.77 15 Martin 518.34 8.67 1.67 85 McDowell 420.82* 10.35 2.4595 62 Mecklenburg 595.91 14.55 2.44 64 Mitchell 232.93 6.86 2.94 40 Montgomery 341.14 8.59 2.52 59 Moore 500.79 8.25 1.64 86 Nash 456.50 5.64 1.24 94 New Hanover 396.50 11.46 2.89 44 Northampton 412.36 10.14 2.46 63 Onslow 458.28 9.19 2.005 73 Orange 483.73 14.58 3.01 37 Pamlico 216.75 7.03 3.24 27 Pasquotank 392.19 13.09 3.337 26 Pender 328.74* 3.47 1.05 98 Perquimans 323.59 13.77 4.25 6 Person 284.99 8.97 3.17 32 Pitt 451.47 16.56 3.66 18 Polk 303.23 5.96 1.97 76 Randolph 321.18 6.85 2.13 70 Richmond 442.71* 11.01 2.49 60 Robeson 397.26 6.18 1.55 89 Rockingham 416.79 12.89 3.09 34 Rowan 455.91 15.47 3.38 25 Rutherford 295.24 7.74 2.62 56 Sampson 299.27 3.53 1.18 96 Scotland 435.63 6.37 1.46 90 Stanly 439.05 16.84 3.83 14 Stokes 272.83 6.89 2.52 58 Surry 373.88 15.10 4.23 9 Swain 489.73 12.11 2.47 61 Transylvania 539.21 7.61 1.41 92 Tyrrell 313.53 8.25 2.63 55 Union 327.06 16.40 5.01 1 Vance 519.27 12.35 2.38 65 Wake 491.20 10.99 2.24 68 Warren 347.57 10.12 2.911 43 Washington 347.09 6.31 1.818 81 Watauga 205.99 3.21 1.56 88 Wayne 444.77* 11.92 2.69 52 Wilkes 218.57 6.39 2.92 41 Wilson 507.01 19.05 3.76 16 Yadkin 228.42 8.07 3.97 12 Yancy 188.95 7.80 4.13 10 North Carolina __$418.96 $11.36 2.71 ♦Represents 1917 valuation, as the 1918 figures are not available. IN NORTH CAROLINA 49 Standing of Counties in the Percentage of Wealth Invested in War Savings Stamps County Standing Union 1 Greene 2 Edgecombe 3 Lee 4 Chowan 5 Perquimans 6 Haywood 7 Avery 8 Surry 9 Yancy 10 Anson 11 Yadkin 12 Catawba 13 Stanly 14 Madison 15 Wilson 16 Cabarrus 17 Pitt 18 Davie 19 Cleveland 20 Burke 21 Forsyth 22 Iredell 23 Alamance 24 Rowan 25 Pasquotank 26 Pamlico 27 Davidson 28 Jones 29 Henderson 30 Caswell 31 Person 32 Lincoln 33 Rockingham 34 Franklin 35 Hertford — _ 36 Orange 37 Dare 38 Hyde 39 Mitchell 40 Wilkes 41 Carteret 42 Warren 43 New Hanover 44 Macon 45 Buncombe 46 Guilford 47 Cherokee 48 Granville 49 Chatham 50 County Standing Lenoir 51 Wayne 52 Alexander 53 Beaufort 54 Tyrrell 55 Rutherford 56 Camden 57 Stokes 58 Montgomery 59 Richmond 60 Swain 61 McDowell 62 Northampton 63 Mecklenburg 64 Vance 65 Bertie 66 Craven 67 Wake 68 Gates 69 Randolph 70 Johnston 71 Halifax 72 Onslow 73 Gaston 74 Harnett 75 Polk 76 Jackson 77 Caldwell 78 Duplin 79 Cumberland 80 Washington 81 Hoke 82 Graham 83 Ashe 84 Martin 85 Moore 86 Alleghany 87 Watauga 88 Robeson 89 Scotland 90 Durham 91 Transylvania 92 Columbus 93 Nash 94 Clay 95 Sampson 96 Currituck 97 Pender 98 Bladen 99 Brunswick 100 m THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Only one County — Union — invested as much as five per cent of its wealth in War Savings Stamps; ten invested as much as four per cent; twenty-seven, as much as three per cent; thirty-five, as much as two per cent; twenty-five, as much as one per cent; and only two Counties — Bladen and Brunswick — invested less than one per cent of their wealth in War Savings Stamps. North Carolina Compared With Other States There is special difficulty in comparing the War Savings record of North Carolina with that of other States because, as has been stated before, the sales of Stamps in North Carolina have been figured at maturity value, while the sales for all the States published by the Treasury Department have been figured at the cash value, which varies from month to month. The following table,* however, gives the standing of the States in cash sales on December 31, 1918: State Total Sales (Cask) Nebraska 27,450,189.85 Ohio 86,244,733.20 South Dakota— 9,911,807.81 Iowa 35,955,734.85 Oregon 12,887,111.48 Kansas 26,495,217.75 Indiana 40,821,176.90 Vermont 5,120,236.27 Montana 6,501,569.80 Washington __ 21,349,745.64 Nevada 1,439,411.01 Missouri 44,522,304.61 Colorado 12,591,100.72 Wisconsin 30,911,994.53 California 36,705,533.59 Utah 5,274,317.28 New Hampshire 5,252,890.79 Minnesota 27,390,858.62 Connecticut 15,667,193.94 West Virginia 16,124,803.94 Arizona 2,784,738.32 Maine 7,929,762.90 Texas 45,501,752.27 Idaho 4,347,989.42 Tennessee 22,119,226.12 Per Capita Sales Standing Standing (Cash) Total Sales Per Cap. Sales 21.18 11 1 16.39 1 2 16.38 32 3 15.13 9 4 14.94 28 5 14.03 13 6 14.00 7 7 13.90 42 8 13.75 36 9 13.70 17 10 12.93 47 11 12.54 6 12 12.42 30 13 12.19 10 14 11.92 8 15 11.85 40 16 11.78 41 17 11.75 12 18 11.74 23 19 11.35 22 20 10.56 44 21 10.11 34 22 9.94 5 23 9.69 43 24 9.49 16 25 *In the table the District of Columbia, whose total sales amounted to $5,882,850.40 and per capita sales $15.93, has been omitted in order that the rtandings of the States might be better compared with one another. And for the same reason California, New York, and Pennsylvania each has been considered as a unit instead of dividing it into sections as was done, for the same of convenience, during the campaign. 9.48 48 26 9.37 37 27 9.32 45 28 9.32 4 29 8.78 20 30 8.66 39 31 8.66 18 32 8.64 19 33 8.17 3 34 7.85 2 35 7.35 24 36 7.32 27 37 7.20 29 38 6.73 15 39 6.50 25 40 6.35 14 41 5.98 33 42 5.57 38 43 5.46 21 44 5.44 46 45 4.78 26 46 4.69 35 47 4.48 31 48 IN NORTH CAROLINA 51 State Total Sales Per Capita Sales Standing Standing (Cash) (Cash) Total Sales Per Cap. Sales Wyoming 1,349,487.58 Rhode Island — 5,917,095.42 Delaware 2,189,639.17 Illinois 58,519,777.37 Oklahoma 20,334,878.66 North Dakota— 5,758,515.00 North Carolina 21,085,388.00 Kentucky 20,951,884.21 Pennsylvania _ 69,109,645.10 New York 83,574,795.98 Mississippi 14,668,967.67 Louisiana 13,656,584.73 Arkansas 12,785,006.63 Michigan 23,262,967.05 Virginia 14,662,008.82 Massachusetts 24,786,876.63 Maryland 8,429,669.48 Florida 5,746,675.46 New Jersey 17,050,372.44 New Mexico — 1,902,412.46 Georgia 13,758,550.50 South Carolina 7,713,522.23 Alabama 10,668,499.20 United States 1,015,067,471.80 9.64 Analysis of the above table shows that in total sales, cash value, North Carolina stood 18th and in per capita sales 32nd among the 48 States. In both total and per capita sales North Carolina led all the Southern States except Tennessee and Texas. Its total sales lacked only about $1,000,000 being as much as the sales of Virginia and South Carolina combined, and its per capita sales but $2.53 being as much as theirs combined. In its per capita sales it was ahead of Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, and New Jersey, as well as the Southern States except Tennessee and Texas. Per Capita Savings The success of the War Savings Campaign in increasing the savings of our people is shown clearly by the per capita savings figures of the country in 1914 and again in 1918. The following table, for which one is indebted to Mr. Milton W. Harrison of the Savings Bank Section of the American Bankers Association, shows the per capita savings in Banks and Trust Companies of the United States, of each section of the United States, and of each State in 1914 and in 1918, together with the percentage of increase : 52 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Savings in Banks and Trust Companies Per Capita Savings 1914 NEW ENGLAND STATES— Maine $201.81 New Hampshire 245.39 Vermont 244.07 Massachusetts 240.91 Rhode Island 258.31 Connecticut 288.80 Total 245.78 EASTERN STATES— New York 226.32 New Jersey 111.84 Pennsylvania 101.85 Delaware 77.89 Maryland 113.76 Washington, D. C 31.13 Total 157.25 SOUTHERN STATES— Virginia 31.89 West Virginia 52.08 North Carolina 17.20 South Carolina 21.24 Georgia 17.53 Florida 19.50 Alabama 13.02 Mississippi 9.20 Louisiana 23.12 Texas 5.11 Arkansas 7.20 Kentucky 21.08 Tennessee 17.37 Total 18.45 MIDDLE WEST STATES— Ohio 85.68 Indiana 44.57 Illinois 82.30 Michigan 96.18 Wisconsin 74.88 Minnesota 92.51 Iowa 114.83 Missouri 44.77 Total 72.48 Per Capita Savings 1918 $244.16 297.63 338.43 291.99 285.12 377.59 295.93 174.14 26.73 Percentage Increase 20.9 21.3 38.7 21.6 10.3 30.7 20.3 245.88 8.6 150.77 34.8 106.65 4.7 117.71 51.1 145.25 27.7 75.74 143.3 10.7 44.89 41.1 68.92 32.3 24.24 40.9 33.49 57.7 28.14 60.5 39.20 101.1 13.73 5.4 19.29 108.5 30.04 25.6 10.10 97.6 11.06 53.6 28.11 33.3 28.64 64.2 44.9 128.70 50.2 62.61 40. 103.52 25.7 150.47 56.4 108.91 45.4 147.14 59. 169.46 47.5 53.92 20.4 100.97 39.3 IN NORTH CAROLINA 53 Per Capita Percentage Savings 1918 Increase 131.55 279.1 137.15 77.8 101.61 59.3 49.01 66.1 146.09 135.4 101.38 25.7 96.06 54.1 33.29 61.1 26.88 154.3 76.78 101.1 87.52 45.8 69.08 50 244.22 22.8 61.22 116.9 108.54 44.6 116.50 70.2 171.84 407.6 170.05 46.9 113.45 27.3 Per Capita Savings 1914 WESTERN STATES— North Dakota 34.64 South Dakota 77.02 Nebraska 63.82 Kansas 29.43 Montana 62.05 Wyoming 80.61 Colorado 62.33 New Mexico 20.66 Oklahoma 10.57 Total 38.21 PACIFIC STATES— Washington 60.01 Oregon 46.03 California 198.74 Idaho 28.22 Utah 75.06 Nevada 68.44 Arizona 33.85 Total 122.66 UNITED STATES 89.11 Adding $20.00 to the per capita savings of one of the New Eng- land States, whose savings were already over $200.00 per capita, meant an increase of only ten per cent. But adding that much to the per capita savings of North Carolina, whose savings in banks were only $24.24 in 1918, meant an increase of nearly 100 per cent. The savings of North Carolina now is $35.60 per capita, representing an increase of 46.8 per cent, which is directly traceable to the War Savings Cam- paign. The savings of the United States now is $123.45 per capita, representing an increase of about 8 per cent, directly traceable to the War Savings Campaign. A comparison of North Carolina with the other States of the Union would show that the War Savings Cam- paign increased its per capita savings by a larger percentage than the War Savings Campaign increased the per capita savings of any other except a Southern State. This is, of course, attributable to the smallness of the per capita savings of North Carolina and the other Southern States when the War Savings Campaign began ; but the big increase indi- cates, none the less, the success of the War Savings Campaign in pro- moting savings. Enormity of the War Savings Allotment The enormity and, in fact, the utter impossibility of accomplish- ment of the War Savings task measured in terms of money is shown by a comparison of results under different bases of allotment. Had the War Savings allotment been made on the basis of bank resources on December 31, 1917, as the four Liberty Loan allotments 54 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 were made, it would have been but $12,000,000; on the basis of population it was four times that much. Had the Liberty Loan allot- ments of the first four loans combined been made on the basis of population, it would have been $336,000,000; on the basis of bank resources it was only a little more than a third that much. Had the War Savings allotment been made on the basis of savings deposits on January 1, 1918, it would have been but $12,- 500,000. Had every dollar asked for War Savings in 1918 been drawn out of the savings banks of the country and had each State reached its allotment, the savings banks deposits of the country would have been depleted only 21 per cent, while the savings banks deposits of North Carolina would have been depleted 82 per cent. In other words, the War Savings allotment would have taken over four-fifths of the accumulated savings of North Carolina as compared with one- fifth of the savings of the nation as a whole. Had the War Savings allotment been made on the basis of per capita wealth — figuring the per capita wealth of the United States at $2,500, which is only an estimate, and of North Carolina, at $418.96 — it would have been $8,000,000; on the basis of population it was over six times that much. It appears, therefore, that population was the one basis of allot- ment that made the War Savings task humanly impossible of ac- complishment. Retail Merchants' Division What the Retail Merchants' Division of the War Savings Com- mittee did is one of the bright spots in the campaign. As has already been stated, the division was organized in May, 1918, with Mr. John L. Gilmer as State Chairman and Mr. Frank E. Griffith as State Secretary, and set to the task of selling $2,312,093.00 worth of War Savings Stamps during the year. Under the plan of organization already outlined, the State was divided into nine districts. The fol- lowing table shows what the State as a whole, what each district, and what each city or town accomplished in sales: Allotment Amt. Sold North Carolina ___$2,312,093 $3,230,352.25 Districts — Elizabeth City— $161,249.00 $189,766.93 New Bern 520,687.00 353,531.01 Henderson 257,022.00 306,267.05 Hamlet 143,414.00 188,036.31 Raleigh 345,778.00 421,143.73 Winston-Salem __ 531,447.00 560,048.27 Charlotte 411,383.00 486,354.62 Marion 168,693.00 274,839.18 Asheville 196,762.00 450,364.85 Per Cent Sold Chairman 139 John L. Gilmer 117 w . P. Duff 67 L. H. Cutler, Jr. 119 R. G. S. Davis 131 J. Paul Leonard 121 William Perlstein 105 F. E. Griffith 118 J. F. Morris 162 J. H. Tate 228 Archibald Nichols IN NORTH CAROLINA 55 Allotment Amt. Sold 100% Towns— Ahoskie 4,572.00 5,127.00 Albemarle 10,474.00 11,963.10 Andrews 5,083.00 19,041.25 Apex 4,219.00 8,601.25 Areola 1,100.00 7,240.00 Asheboro 9,682.00 13,831.50 Asheville 92,871.00 276,001.00 Atlantic 1,000.00 1,656.00 Ayden 4,702.00 4,802.50 Badin 12,319.00 13,571.75 Bakersville 1,750.00 2,300.00 Battleboro 1,850.00 5,058.00 Beaufort 12,293.00 25,981.40 Belmont 5,900.00 7,176.25 Benson 4,602.00 10,678.37 Bladenboro 2,300.00 2,577.35 Bonlee 500.00 10,375.00 Bostic 1,000.00 1,705.00 Brevard 4,547.00 4,695.80 Bryson City 4,224.00 12,753.75 Burgaw 4,732.00 6,226.75 Burlington 23,798.00 60,918.27 Cane River 1,250.00 4,008.25 Canton 6,300.00 7,394.89 Cerro Gordo 1,900.00 9,835.75 Chadbourne 6,147.00 6,976.00 Chapel Hill 5,686.00 10,471.91 Chapenoke 1,400.00 4,021.23 Charlotte 168,367.00 201,527.00 Cherokee 800.00 14,015.00 Clarkton 2,300.00 3,565.00 Clayton 7,132.00 13,928.00 Cliffside 1,730.00 9,447.00 Clyde 1,750.00 2,660.50 Concord 43,139.00 56,519.50 Connelly Springs 1,750.00 6,022.12 Crabtree 800.00 4,332.25 Dallas 5,262.00 6,274.00 Dunn 9,022.00 14,366.80 Durham 90,292.00 90,418.50 Edenton 13,814.00 15,135.85 Elizabeth City 41,639.00 74,707.28 Elkin 6,187.00 19,375.00 Ellerbee 1,700.00 2,250.00 Elm City 4,219.00 12,251.25 Elon College 1,100.00 1,622.28 Ellenboro 1,500.00 2,000.00 Farmville 5,400.00 28,066.25 Franklin 1,750.00 3,867.00 Franklinton 6,141.00 6,922.28 Franklinville 4,050.00 5,265.00 Four Oaks 1,750.00 ■ 2,090.00 Per Cent Sold Chairman 112 F. H. Weaver 113 W. H. Snuggs 374 M. H. Whitaker 204 Samuel Watkins 658 W. R. Reel 143 S. B. Stedman 296 Archibald Nichols 165 Dennis Mason 102 R. W. Smith . 110 J. W. Frazier 131 W. B. Young 274 M. C. Braswell 211 D. M. Jones 122 W. R. Suggs 232 Preston Woodall 112 R. C. Bridger 2075 I. H. Dunlap 170 L. S. Thomas 103 B. W. Trantham 302 J. L. Gibson 131 J. L. Harrell 251 Lynn W. Whitted 320 R. A. Radford 117 J. T. Duckworth 517 J. L. Williamson 112 C. F. Shelton 181 R. Clyde Andrews 287 G. D. Towe 113 W. T. McCoy 1752 T. M. Jenkins 155 J. A. Singletary 195 J. D. Barbour 546 Z. O. Jenkins 152 Edwin Fincher 131 J. E. Davis 338 D. P. Hudson 541 F. W. Messer 119 E. M. Rhyne 159 Marvin Wade 100 L. B. Markham 109 D. B. Liles 179 W. P. Duff 311 E. F. McNeer 132 J. R. Bennett 290 W. M. Wells 147 H. H. Kimsey 133 A. S. Harrill 579 A. H. Joyner 221 C. W. Hames 112 R. D. Collins 130 J. H. Marley 114 J. G. Massengile 56 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Allotment Amt. Sold Goldsboro 30,229.00 31,201.31 Greensboro 77,852.00 81,947.50 Green Mountain _ 1,000.00 1,305.00 Hamilton 1,900.00 6,260.00 Hamlet 10,755.00 15,691.00 Heaton 800.00 2,075.47 Henderson 22,738.00 56,611.95 Hendersonville __ 16,497.00 33,502.25 Hertford 10,112.00 14,934.75 Hickory 20,644.00 28,288.75 High Point 47,049.00 49,605.25 Hillsboro 5,006.00 13,875.07 Hookerton 3,100.00 18,953.63 Hot Springs 2,150.00 7,301.50 Huntersville 4,392.00 8,237.00 Jackson 3,994.00 5,978.83 Jackson Springs _ 1,000.00 1,161.70 Jonesboro 4,669.00 9,739.75 Kings Mountain _ 10,977.00 14,725.50 Kinston 34,626.00 53,736.50 Lake Toxaway __ 1,100.00 4,523.50 Laurinburg 11,493.00 16,147.25 Lexington 20,605.00 41,091.86 Louisburg 8,786.00 12,224.20 Macon 2,600.00 2,715.00 Madison 5,114.00 14,025.25 Maiden 3,919.00 4,302.75 Manteo 2,750.00 4,650.50 Marion 6,617.00 48,317.00 Marshall 4,839.00 8,380.00 Mars Hill 1,750.00 2,156.00 Maggie 1,750.00 4,588.76 Mocksville 5,249.00 6,773.44 Moncure 900.00 2,053.58 Monroe 20,205.00 27,037.50 Mooresville 16,830.00 17,400.00 Morehead City __ 10,091.00 12,352.17 Morganton 13,423.00 59,976.50 Mt. Airy 19,026.00 27,328.25 Mt. Gilead 4,668.00 10,541.32 Mt. Olive 5,062.00 19,372.00 Mt. Holly 5,301.00 9,244.25 Murphy 5,735.00 11,877.25 Marshville 2,750.00 7,600.00 Nashville 4,050.00 9,990.92 Norlina 4,162.00 5,630.15 N. Wilkesboro — 12,414.00 13,163.72 Oak City 1,750.00 2,046.00 Old Fort 3,994.00 5,326.50 Oxford 14,937.00 17,410.75 Ore Hill 900.00 1,050.00 Per Cent Sold Chairman 103 Graves J. Smith 105 C. H. McKnight 130 J. W. Howell 329 P. L. Salsburg 145 L. A. Patrick 259 J. M. Heaton 205 R. G. S. Davis 203 John T. Wilkins 147 J. C. Blanchard 137 J. A. Moretz 105 Ed. Freeze 277 C. M. Andrews 611 N. F. Palmer 349 Ira Plemmons 187 S. C. Choat 149 E. S. Bowers 116 W. L. Holliday 208 R. A. Watson 134 C. Mauney 161 Dan Quinerly 411 C. R. McNeely 140 A. F. Blue 150 T. C. Hinkle 139 G. W. Ford 104 Lawrence Coleman 274 A. W. Daniel 109 S. M. Finger 168 C. W. Davis 730 J. H. Tate 173 E. R. Tweed 123 R. L. Gibbs 262 F. G. Rippetoe 129 Rufus B. Sanford 229 T. B. Maddox 133 J. Watt Hamilton 103 C. A. Mayhew 122 R. H. Dowdy 446 Nathan Lazarus 143 J. F. Prather 226 T. R. Baldwin, Jr. 382 S. D. Broadhurst 174 H. R. Lewis 207 C. A. Brown 276 J. M. Edwards 246 R. M. Collins 135 H. C. Fleming 106 J. E. Spainhour 117 H. S. Everetts 133 I. L. Copeland 116 R. W. White 116 D. K. Taylor IN NORTH CAROLINA 57 Allotment Pee Dee 3,150.00 Pikeville 1,950.00 Proctor 800.00 Pleasant Garden 500.00 Raeford 4,050.00 Ramseur 5,058.00 Rockingham 10,667.00 Rocky Mount 39,852.00 Roxboro 7,054.00 Rural Hall 1,750.00 Robbinsville 1,200.00 Salisbury 35,406.00 Saluda 1,750.00 Sanford 6,795.00 Shelby 9,987.00 Siler City 4,395.00 Smithfield 6,667.00 Snow Hill 3,600.00 Southern Pines __ 1,994.00 Spencer 18,036.00 Spring Hope 5,962.00 Stantonsburg 900.00 Statesville 22,763.00 Stem 1,000.00 Stoneville 2,700.00 Stovall 1,500.00 Summerfield 1,000.00 Sylva 3,994.00 South Mills 1,250.00 Spruce Pine 2,100.00 Tarboro 20,412.00 Thomasville 19,190.00 Trenton 3,900.00 Troy 5,242.00 Tryon 4,116.00 Valdese 1,500.00 Wadesboro 10,861.00 Wagram 3,700.00 Wake Forest 7,144.00 Warrenton 4,725.00 Waynesville 9,940.00 Whitakers 4,106.00 Wilson 33,248.00 Windsor 3,494.00 Winston-Salem __ 112,394.00 Winton 3,994.00 Zebulon 1,700.00 Winfall 1,750.00 Per Cent Amt. Sold Sold Chairman 5,298.83 167 W. R. Boggan 2,516.00 128 W. E. Hales 1,374.80 171 J. G. Horner 1,173.25 234 C. H. McKnight 9,493.48 234 T. A. Nesbitt 5,709.75 112 C. B. Smith 40,780.25 382 E. A. Allen 40,370.33 126 P. L. Thigpen 13,235.75 172 A. M. Burns 4,155.00 237 A. L. Payne 2,519.50 209 Walter Wiggins 39,566.50 112 C. G. McCurdy 3,293.00 182 Dr. G. R. Little 20,904.00 307 L. P. Wilkins 16,821.71 169 L. P. Holland 12,986.25 296 J. Spreight Wrenn 6,671.25 100 H. C. Woodall 8,035.75 223 W. T. Exum 3,400.58 176 C. T. Patch 20,831.75 115 H. P. Brandis 9,472.00 159 B. F. Wood 1,800.00 200 W. H. Applewhite 44,501.50 196 A. W. Bunch 5,562.76 556 J. H. Gooch 2,845.00 105 R. L. Stoneville 3,720.00 248 J. G. Harris 1,885.00 188 C. H. McKnight 6,150.50 155 M. Buchannon 2,913.00 233 W. J. Eure 4,090.00 195 S. B. Cannon 25,095.27 123 J. E. Simmons 25,753.25 134 J. A. Morris 5,473.71 112 S. H. Haywood 5,813.90 110 Barna Allen 5,763.00 140 B. L. Ballinger 2,920.00 194 J. M. Brinkley 72,547.25 658 L. D. Rivers 10,314.15 279 W. G. Buie 11,090.00 155 W. I. Holding 7,077.13 171 Alpheus Jones 12,146.45 122 S. H. Bushnell 4,118.00 100 Z. G. Mann 38,551.75 116 . —G. T. Fulgher 18,085.00 517 J. T. Stokes 155,497.00 138 J. F. Morris 16,718.75 418 W. H. Lassiter 3,988.00 236 R. D. Nichols 2,050.00 101 W. P. Duff 58 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Allotment Towns Less than 100% Aberdeen 4,387.00 Bath 1,600.00 Belhaven 14,159.00 Bessemer City ___ 7,567.00 Bethel 1,700.00 Biscoe 4,219.00 Black Mountain _ 2,100.00 Bixby 500.00 Belvedere 1,750.00 Candor 1,000.00 Carthage 5,507.00 Cherryville 5,506.00 Clinton 5,450.00 Columbia 5,456.00 Columbus 1,500.00 Cornelius 7,301.00 Creedmore 1,500.00 Currituck C. H.__ 1,000.00 Dellwood 800.00 Dover 3,750.00 East Bend 5,287.00 Elizabethtown 2,300.00 Fairmont 4,387.00 Faison 4,050.00 Fayetteville 34,875.00 Forest City 10,879.00 Fremont 4,707.00 Garysburg 1,600.00 Gastonia 28,505.00 Gibson 3,700.00 Gibsonville :__ 5,087.00 Glen Alpine 1,750.00 Graham 12,319.00 Greenville 20,299.00 Halifax 2,750.00 Haw River 5,256.00 Hobgood 1,750.00 Hope Mills 4,700.00 Harris 800.00 Kenly 3,949.00 LaGrange 5,456.00 Leaksville — ) Spray '. \ 20,205.00 Draper — J Lenoir 16,650.00 Liberty 1,750.00 Per Cent Amt. Sold Sold Chairman 1,036.25 24 F. H. Weaver 10.00 .6 T. A. Brooks 61.25 A D. Lesofsky 2,884.05 38 J. H. Wilkins 500.00 29 H. V. Staton 1,918.75 45 A. W. Burt 1,150.00 54 W. H. McMurray 200.00 40 J. H. Robertson 500.00 20 W. P. Duff 300.00 30 D. S. Hurley 540.00 10 F. S. Cole 3,343.93 41 L. C. McDowlel 4,336.50 79 H. L. Boyd 1,407.00 25 S. J. Holloway 236.00 15 C. E. Shore 1,105.00 15 T. P. Howard 799.00 52 A. B. Allen 745.25 74 640.00 80 C. A. Campbell 2,385.00 63 W. L. Bell 3,222.25 61 H. E. Davis 1,864.75 81 Jas. H. Clark 2,598.15 39 W. N. Hubbard 416.38 10 Malcohn McKays 30,687.36 88 Jacob Stein 4,052.00 36 P. D. Harrell 1,088.25 23 C. R. Aycock 665.00 41 W. H. Joyner 10,854.75 38 W. B. Morris 1,275.00 34 Vesper Adams 3,750.00 73 J. W. Burke 1,550.00 92 A. M. Davis 9,370.00 75 W. P. Green 13,544.50 66 Geo. B. W. Hadley 1,325.10 48 T. S. Dickens 3,681.75 68 J. W. Simmons 610.25 35 Leon G. Shields 553.50 12 J. A. Bynum 388.07 48 L. Williamson 2,190.00 55 R. A. Hale 227.95 4 R. M. Harper 10,621.00 52 R. E. Wall 10,684.00 64 H. W. Courtney 1,059.25 60 A. L. McPherson IN NORTH CAROLINA 59 Allotment Amt. Sold Lincolnton 7,443.00 4,737.00 Lillington 2,100.00 1,096.00 Lowell 4,950.00 1,902.25 Lumberton 11,638.00 3,154.40 Marshallburg ___ 800.00 455.65 Maxton 6,539.00 1,945.00 Maysville 3,919.00 1,334.05 McAdensville 4,864.00 386.00 Mebane 5,116.00 3,993.14 Merry Oaks 3,700.00 138.50 Mt. Pleasant 3,919.00 2,335.00 Murfreesboro 4,962.00 1,298.27 New Bern 49,307.00 17,613.81 Newton 11,464.00 6,534.25 Northampton RPD 1,000.00 661.25 Oriental 3,994.00 1,335.00 Pantego 2,500.00 935.00 Pittsboro 4,390.00 3,544.00 Plymouth 10,727.00 4,231.00 Pollocksville 2,900.00 925.50 Powells Point — 1,000.00 688.00 Raleigh 95,016.00 60,603.00 Randleman 9,070.00 830.00 Red Springs 5,389.00 4,024.47 Reidsville 23,859.00 8,223.50 Roanoke Rapids _ 8,267.00 1,186.90 Robertsville 4,440.00 172.58 Roper 5,175.00 4,373.14 Rosemary .6,412.00 2,895.56 Rowland 4,050.00 870.00 Rutherfordton 5,256.00 4,311.52 Rich Square 2,000.00 301.00 Salemburg 3,700.00 850.00 Scotland Neck ___ 8,543.00 35.00 Seaboard 1,850.00 1,309.00 Selma 6,588.00 725.00 Severn 1,600.00 105.00 Star 800.00 70.00 Stokesdale 1,950.00 320.00 Stoney Point 800.00 95.50 Toecane 1,000.00 727.25 Tyner 800.00 209,00 Union Mills 1,200.00 685.00 Vanceboro 3,900.00 26.80 Vandemere 3,100.00 1,474.50 Vein Mountain __ 800.00 325.75 Per Cent Sold Chairman 63 J. L. Thompson 52 H. F. Atkins 38 J. Lynn Roberson 26 R. H. Crichton 57 E. H. Davis 29 J. E. Morrison 34 A. C. Foscue 8 J. W. Little 78 H. E. Wilkinson 3 L. G. Gunter 59 H. E. Foil 26 E. N. Evans 35 L. H. Cutler, Jr. 57 C. D. Drum 66 33 A. W. Haskins 57 C. P. Aycock 80 A. H. London 40 W. R. Hampton 32 H. A. Chadwick 69 W. P. Duff 63 William Perlstein 9 J. G. Brown 74 John J. Thrower 34 R. H. Tucker 14 J. W. House 4 R. L. Smith 84 J. W. Williams 45 Geo. L. Hayes, Jr. 21 J. McR. Bracy 82 W. J. McDaniel 15 E. S. Bowers 23 A. E. Royall 4 Lewis B. Suitor 76 R. W. Edwards 11 W. L. Stancil 6 C. H. Britt 8 Ernest Freeman 16 D. P. Lemons 10 J. M. Miller 72 Blevins Bros. 26 W. P. Duff 57 6 47 40 J. D. Morris W. C. White C. H. Flowers H. M. Whitaker 60 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Allotment Walnut Cove 3,487.00 Washington 30,744.00 Weldon 9,893.00 Wendel 4,050.00 Williamston 7,789.00 Wilmington 127,451.00 Woodland 1,250.00 Woodlawn 1,850.00 Waxhaw 4,130.00 Yanceyville 1,750.00 Per Cent Amt. Sold Sold Chairman 1,999.25 57 P. T. Harrington 12,818.41 41 F. S. Worthy 8,172.75 82 L. W. Murphy 3,608.00 89 Oscar Griswald 137.00 2 Simon Rutenburg 104,920.49 82 George Honnet 335.00 26 E. S. Bowers 1,500.00 81 M. L. Good 263.00 6 J. A. Williams 1,100.00 62 W. N. Harrelson The following are the twenty leading towns of the State in the sale of War Savings Stamps by their retail merchants: Per Cent Allot- Toivn ment Sold Bonlee 2075 Cherokee 1752 Marion 730 Areola 658 Wadesboro 658 Hookerton 611 Farmville 579 Stem 556 Cliffside 546 Crabtree 541 Cerro Gordo 517 Windsor 517 Morganton 446 Winton 418 Lake Toxaway 411 Mt. Olive 382 Rockingham 382 Andrews 374 Hot Springs 349 Connelly Springs 338 jnding Chairman 1 I. H. Dunlap 2 T. M. Jenkins 3 J. H. Tate 4 W. R. Reel 5 L. D. Rivers 6 N. F. Palmer 7 A. H. Joyner 8 J. H. Gooch 9 Z. O. Jenkins 10 F. W. Messer 11 J. L. Williamson 12 J. T. Stokes 13 Nathan Lazarus 14 W. H. Lassiter 15 C. R. McNeely 16 S. D. Broadhurst 17 E. A. Allen 18 M. H. Whitaker 19 Ira Plemmons 20 D. P. Hudson The following is a record of the merchants' division in the seven largest cities of the State: Quota Asheville % 92,871.00 Winston-Salem __ 112,394.00 Charlotte 168,367.00 Greensboro 77,852.00 Durham 90,292.00 Wilmington 127,451.00 Raleigh 95,016.00 Sales Per Cent Chairman 276,001.00 296 Archibald Nichols 155,497.00 138 J. F. Morris 201,527.00 113 W. T. McCoy 81,947.00 105 C. H. McKnight 90,418.50 100 L. B. Markham 104,920.49 82 George Honnet 60,603.00 62 William Perlstein IN NORTH CAROLINA 61 The Retail Merchants of North Carolina led the Nation in sales, as shown by the following excerpt from a recent letter of congratulation by Mr. Harold Braddock, Director, Savings Division, War Loan Or- ganization, Washington : "It may be of interest to you to know that in no other State has the Retail Merchants' Division accomplished such gratifying sales. On several occasions the smaller towns have succeeded in overselling their quotas to the amount of four hundred per cent, but no State has made a record to be even compared with yours." Negroes What the Negroes of North Carolina, who constitute 36 per cent of the total population, actually accomplished in War Savings cannot be determined with any degree of accuracy for the reason that no separate records either of pledges or sales were made for the races. In pledges it was noteworthy that the 14 black counties of the State pledged a larger per cent of their allotment than the State as a whole, that the 19 counties that subscribed or oversubscribed their allotment had a larger percentage of Negroes than the State as a whole, that the 49 Counties that had more than an average colored population pledged above the average of the State, that the 51 Counties that pledged 15 per cent over the average for the State had 4 per cent over an average of the colored population of the State. In sales the record of the Negroes is equally incomplete. No effort whatever has been made to ascertain the amount of Stamps owned by Negroes. But it is worth noting that Edgecombe County — one of the two Counties of the State that oversold its allotment, the other one being Forsyth — has a population 60 per cent colored. The following table shows the per cent of colored population and the per cent of its War Savings allotment sold in each of the 14 black Counties: Per Cent Colored County Warren 66 Halifax 64 Edgecombe 60 Hertford 59 Bertie 58 Northampton 58 Craven 57 Scotland 55 Chowan 54 Anson 52 Caswell 51 Vance 50 Perquimans 50 Pasquotank 50 North Carolina 36 Per Cent Allotment Sold Stand 50.64 48 48.59 51 106.58 2 55.35 39 38.61 67 50.72 47 53.03 45 31.87 80 75.66 13 72.02 20 34.19 79 61.79 29 68.86 24 65.48 26 56.80 62 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Six of the fourteen black counties sold more than the average per cent for the State, ten of them rank in the first half and six of them in the first third of the Counties. So it appears, beyond a doubt, that the Negro either bought his proportionate part of War Savings Stamps or else made it possible for the white person near him to buy more than his part. The colored people did credit to their race in the War Savings Campaign. North Carolina's Record in Dollars If one measures North Carolina's War Savings record in terms of money he finds that the record is incomplete. That is, North Caro- lina, asked to sell among its people $48,666,380, sold only $27,649,397 ; asked to sell 100 per cent of its allotment, it sold only 56.80 per cent; asked to invest $20 per capita, it invested only $11.36; asked to invest nearly 5 per cent of its wealth in War Savings Stamps, it invested only 2.71 per cent. Reasons Why Allotment Not Attained At present the reasons why North Carolina did not and could not attain its allotment are clearly understood by the people; but in the years to come the obstacles confronting the campaign may be for- gotten or overlooked and the campaign itself stand as the only un- completed War obligation of the State. For the sake of history, there- fore, it is proper here to set down the difficulties — some of them in- superable — that the campaign had to encounter. Other Campaigns In the first place, the War Savings Campaign was sidetracked, off and on, the year round to give the main line to other War efforts. In April, for instance, it had to give way for the Third Liberty Loan; in May, for the Red Cross Campaign; in September, for the Fourth Liberty Loan ; and in November, for the Allied War Relief Campaign. Only during the lean months of June, July, and August did War Savings have the right-of-way. Epidemic of Influenza In the second place, the War Savings Campaign was almost com- pletely paralyzed by the first epidemic of influenza — the one in October. October had been given over to pledge-redemption in order not to in- terfere with the Fourth Liberty Loan subscriptions. The clerical work incident to the pledge-redemption campaign and the field work necessary to keep the clerical work going were both practically stopped IN NORTH CAROLINA 63 by the epidemic. At one time six of the eight field representatives were out on account of the influenza. The series of district conferences in November to plan for the December drive was greatly affected. As has already been stated, the conference at Raleigh had to be held in sections, the one at Asheville had to be moved to Hendersonville, the one at Salisbury had to be moved to Statesville, and the attendance at all of them was greatly reduced. Armistice In the midst of the November conferences came the signing of the Armistice and the end of fighting. At once the people felt that the War was over, that the Government did not need any more money. Plans had been laid at the district conferences to combat a reaction by having the War workers in every community meet on Thanks- giving Day. But once more the elements were at enmity with War Savings plans and the Thanksgiving Day meetings were rained out quite as completely as the North Carolina Day meetings had been rained out in December, 1917. Then, too, a recrudescence of the in- fluenza neutralized what enthusiasm and determination to put the State "over the top" had been engendered during the November con- ferences. Prices of Cotton and Peanuts But in spite of the reaction due to the Armistice and the enerva- tion due to the influenza, the people of North Carolina were pre- paring to make a determined effort during December. Then it was that two other untoward events arose. Farmers of the Eastern counties had incurred expense of production and in June had pledged to buy Stamps on the basis of thirty-five cent cotton and ten-cent peanuts, which they had been led to expect. But during the Fall the price of cotton had dropped to twenty-five cents and the peanut market was sluggish even at five cents. Local bankers had financed farmers in making and housing their crops and expected to receive payment of the outstanding notes during the Fall. But the farmers did not market their crops, waiting for better prices, and consequently, the banks were unable to lend them money with which to redeem their War Savings pledges. The result was that thousands of per- fectly good War Savings pledges were unredeemed on December 31. Shortage of Supply of Stamps On the last few days of the campaign the shortage of stamps was general throughout the State. Rocky Mount and Winston-Salem, for instance, were completely out of stamps on December 30 and 31. Where the postoffices, banks, and other agencies were properly ad- 64 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 vised, they received the money tendered for Stamps, gave their receipts for it, and delivered the Stamps as early in the New Year as they were received. But it is to be feared that a large percentage of the agencies did not adopt this plan and lost the sales altogether. That many who were unable, for one reason or another, to buy the Stamps in December for which they had pledged, redeemed their pledges, in spirit if not in letter, by purchasing Stamps in January is shown by the fact, as announced in Washington, that North Carolina during January led all the Southern States east of the Mississippi both in total and per capita sales. The January sales of the other Southern States east of the Mississippi is as follows: Total Sales Per Capita Sales State in January in January Virginia 1,290,784 .58 North Carolina 2,043,184 .82 South Carolina 838,013 .50 Georgia 1,569,042 .53 Florida 308,355 .82 Alabama 634,706 .26 Mississippi 1,005,790 .50 Louisiana 793,123 .42 Tennessee 1,086,274 .47 When one considers these difficulties of the War Savings Cam- paign — the other War efforts that side-tracked it, the epidemic, the Armistice, the drop in the prices of crops, and the shortage of Stamps — he must conclude that the campaign was a success even though measured in terms of money. IN NORTH CAROLINA 65 CHAPTER VI. The Permanent Good of the War Savings Campaign The success of the War Savings Campaign should not be judged so much by the amount of money it turned into the Treasury of the United States as by the effect it had upon the life and character of the people. The tangible fruit of the campaign, of course, is twenty- seven and one-half million dollars saved in 1918 to be paid back in 1923 to constitute an immense working capital to be distributed among, perhaps, seven hundred and fifty thousand people of every walk of life. Altogether incalculable is the good that this huge sum should do in paying wages, developing resources, building schools and churches and in getting young people started in the world. But may this twenty- seven and one-half dollars not be merely the seed from which will grow many blessings that cannot be counted in terms of money or even of material prosperity. At the end of the campaign of 1918 a questionaire was sub- mitted to each county chairman in which the question was asked: "In what respects do you consider that the War Savings Campaign of 1918 did the people of your county good?" The following is a sym- posium of their answers. Thrift The War Savings Campaign made our jpeople more thrifty. Thrift is the virtue which manifests itself in habits of industry and economy. The War Savings Campaign made people more industrious by convincing them of the need of increased production and by arousing in them the desire to produce more as a means of helping to win the war and to serve humanity. The new spirit of industry has manifested itself in the farm-boys planting Victory Acres and the farm-girls Thrift Gardens, in boys and girls everywhere earning money with which to buy Stamps, and in people of all ages and circumstances working with a new motive. The War Savings Campaign made people more economical by convincing them of the sin of waste, by showing them how they could help win the War, by economizing in the consumption of labor and material, and in offering them a safe and convenient means of in- vesting their savings. For the first time, the child with his pennies saved and the laborer with his dollar taken from his pay-envelope had 66 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 a way to invest their savings at any time and at any one of over eight thousand places in the State by purchasing Government bonds — called War Savings Certificates — that bore as good or better rate of interest than Liberty Bonds themselves. It opened the eyes of business men — even of those who had considered themselves prudent — to the value of small items. If millions of dollars could be accumulated by saving of quarters, then millions could be scattered by the waste of quarters. Hereafter men will be more regardful of the small leaks and extravagancies in their business. Patriotism The War Savings Campaign made our people more patriotic. In the beginning of the campaign Governor Bickett said that it would be worth while if it did nothing more than teach our people the necessity and righteousness of the War. The chorus of opinions of the County Chairmen is that the campaign not only reconciled our people to the War, but even made them hearty supporters of it in sections where real opposition to the War had existed. One could not make a War Savings appeal without at the same time explaining the necessity and maintaining the righteousness of the War. War Savings speakers, who went into every nook and corner of the State, to a greater extent than speakers have ever done before, made them- selves real educators of the people. They told the people in the re- mote sections what the War was about, how it started, why we were in it, what defeat would cost us, what victory might cost us, and what part each one of us had in it. The people were made to see that it was a people's rather than a Government's or an Administration's War. They were made to see that they, themselves, were warriors the same as their boys in khaki were. For the first time the people realized their partnership with the Government. What else could have created 750,000 Government bond-holders in a State in which not over 8,000 people had even so much as seen a Government bond before the War. Not only did the people come to have a new interest in and a more active loyalty to their country but they came to have a new vision of the world and their part in it. When the soldiers return with a new interest in world problems — as they most certainly will — they will find a people who know infinitely more about and are in- finitely more interested in the world at large tHan they were before the War enlarged their horizon. Community Spirit The War Savings Campaign helped to create a finer community spirit. It brought town and county together. It put politicians, busi- ness men, and preachers on the same platform to speak or on the same IN NORTH CAROLINA 67 team to solicit pledges. It made yoke-fellows of Democrats, Republicans and Socialists. It stimulated local pride. There was a desire for North Carolina to secure its allotment; and a greater desire for the county to secure its share; but the greatest desire of all was for ihe township or ward to do its part. Consequently, men and women of every class and calling worked together in a common cause and here- after it will be infinitely easier for any worthy cause to command a united community support. In one of the towns of North Carolina, for instance, it had been conceded that the people would not work together. A new man in the community — a preacher — saw in the War Savings Campaign his opportunity to start community team work. One of the first day-time mass meetings of the history of the town was a War Savings meeting. The people rallied to that heartily. It was regarded as really the beginning of a community spirit in that town that would thereafter make possible all kinds of worthy commu- nity efforts. Race Relations The War Savings Campaign did much to improve the relations between the white and colored races in North Carolina. What prob- lems the returning colored soldier may give rise to cannot be dis- cerned yet awhile. But whatever these problems may be, the War Savings Campaign will have already done much to put the people of both races into the proper frame of mind to deal with them wisely and solve them satisfactorily. In the War Savings Campaign, the Negro had upon his shoulder the responsibility of doing a full citizen's part. That is, he was ex- pected to invest $20 per capita the same as anybody else. The best men of his race — business men and professional — devoted their time and thought to the War Savings cause. The voice of community builders and patriots was heard above the din of politicians and race agitators. The white people of the State have learned who the real, dependable leaders among the Negroes are and have a new apprecia- tion of their worth. The colored people, themselves, on the other hand, now know better than ever the constructive leaders of the white race. Controversial matters- — politics and social life — were absent from their thought. A great common cause of their country's safety and humanity's welfare was uppermost in the thoughts of speakers and audiences. The colored people of the State saw the white people at their best and the white people saw the colored people at their best. The colored War Savings workers of North Carolina constitute the nucleus of a non-political organization of Negroes with whom the white people of the State may safely deal in grappling with any race problems that may arise in the near future. 68 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 Self-Reliance The War Savings Campaign made our people more self-confident and self-reliant. It showed them how to become economically inde- pendent citizens. More than that, it astounded them to realize their own ability. It had taken them over two hundred years to aaccumulate savings of $24 per capita. Whoever would have dared say that they could increase their per capita savings by nearly fifty per cent in one year's time! Yet that is just what they have done. Knowing North Carolina as it is — five hundred miles in length, sparsely settled in many sections, with three counties without a railroad and two with- out a bank, with one-third of its population colored and with colored people constituting two-thirds of the population in some sections — whoever would have dared say that in one year's time one person in three — white and black, man, woman, and child — would become an investor in Government bonds to the extent of $11.00 per capita, not to mention the investment in Liberty Bonds. Yet that very thing has been accomplished. Our people have a new confidence in and reliance upon themselves, and hereafter a problem — even an imposing one — will be accepted as a challenge rather than as an occasion for despair. Conclusion What is, perhaps, the keenest satisfaction to the State Director and his associates is the way the workers over the State regard their part in the Campaign. One of the leading field workers said at the end of the Campaign that he considered that he had accomplished more good in 1918 in War Savings work than in any previous year of his life. A County Chairman, whose county oversubscribed its allotment, refers to the Campaign as a great blessing to his County. Another chairman, speaking of the effect of the Campaign upon the children, said, "I believe the children of this day will become a more loyal and dependable manhood and womanhood than they would otherwise have done." Still another chairman says that War Savings "opened a new era" where War Savings Societies were organized in in the schools. What a privilege it was to participate in a Campaign that made one of its most consistent workers, a County Chairman, express the following sentiment: "I want to say that my work for War Savings has meant more to me than anything I ever undertook. It made me learn my county and her people, and the sacrifices that the great majority of my workers made in doing the actual work filled me with pride." The End. Barber Printing Company Winston-Salem, N. C. UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 00032771714 This book may be kept out one month unless a recall notice is sent to you. It must be brought to the North Carolina Collection (in Wilson Library) for renewal.